Maternal lead exposure during lactation persistently impairs testicular development and steroidogenesis
in male offspring.
The age of puberty (60 days) is one of the periods of greatest expression of TRa1 and TRa2 in Sertolli cells, showing a critical window for the thyroid hormones in the testicles (Jannini, Carosa, Rucci, Screponi, & D'Armiento, 1999), due to an increase of the steroidogenesis
by the leydig cells (Manna, Tena-Sempere, & Huhtaniemi, 1999).
To determine if ovarian steroidogenesis
and endogenous hormones were the cause of the differences in lesion responses after BPA and BPAF treatment, we examined gene expression of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes and hormone production.
Urinary steroid profiling: a powerful method for the diagnosis of abnormal steroidogenesis
. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2014;9:273-82.
Therefore, the increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([[[Ca.sup.2+]].sub.i]) due to P2X receptor activation is one of the processes that can enhance steroidogenesis
in Leydig cells.
The brain contains approximately 25% of the body's unsterified cholesterol, and cholesterol has functionally important roles in steroidogenesis
, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission at G-protein coupled receptors, myelin production, the structure of neuronal and vesicular membranes, and the regulation of cortical serotonin systems (Dietschy & Turley, 2001; Jafurulla & Chattopadhyay, 2013; Miller & Auchus, 2011; Qiu, Korwek, & Weeber, 2006; Vance, Hayashi, & Karten, 2005).
of the testis - new genes and pathways.
EDCs can mimic or block hormones, interfere with receptor binding, alter steroidogenesis
, and change the metabolism of hormones.
These compounds by binding to the active site of the progesterone-metabolizing enzyme prevent the transformation of progesterone to 3-a 5-a tetrahydroprogesterone; therefore, it may be the main cause of the progesterone hormone increase., Several studies have reported that the apigenin inhibits aromatase activity., Moreover, genistein is one of the phytoestrogen compounds of hydroalcoholic extract of chamomile that can impact estrogen signaling pathways because of binding to estrogen receptors. Several studies have shown that genistein can inhibit steroidogenic enzymes and steroidogenesis
, induce follicular atresia, and decrease oocyte maturation., Patel et al.
Melatonin is measurable in human preovulatory follicular fluid and may play a role in regulating ovarian steroidogenesis
, folliculogenesis, and oocyte maturation .
The ovary remains the primary source of hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS which is mainly attributed to thecal cell hyperplasia leading to intense ovarian steroidogenesis
. Evidence suggests that hyperandrogenism is an important factor in promoting anovulation due to follicular arrest  and high androgen level has been linked to reduced oocyte developmental competence and maturation rates.