Type II collagen is the main component of cartilage, and it is present in articular cartilage, sternal cartilage
, and the meniscus.
Studies on the extraction of collagen from poultry slaughter waste of emu skin (Dromaius novaehollandiae) (Nagai et al., 2015), and chicken feet (Hashim et al., 2014), chicken sternal cartilage (Cao and Xu, 2008), chicken skin (Munasinghe et al., 2015) and chicken tarsus (Almeida et al., 2012) etc.
Purification and characterization of type II collagen from chicken sternal cartilage. Food Chemistry, 2008; 108(2): 439-445.
The survey noted gains in some VMS categories and cited "the positive effects of innovation and marketing support." For instance, sales of products promising joint relief are on the rise, aided by the launch of products featuring UC-II, a natural source of collagen that comes from chicken sternal cartilage
and, once purified and encapsulated, has been increasingly used in a variety of dietary supplements.
Furthermore, recent research on hydrolysed collagen and GAGs has suggested that hydrolysed chicken sternal cartilage extract containing LMW GAGs, as well as hydrolysed collagen type II (MW of 1.5-2.5 kDa), appears to harbour diverse biological properties - in addition to enhanced bioavailability - that not only make it relevant to a comprehensive dietary support for OA-associated symptoms but offer a possible disease-modifying effect through a potential regeneration of the cartilage.
A separate study, which used human subjects, demonstrated that hydrolysis of the chicken sternal cartilage not only reduced the MW of the collagen type II but also depolymerized the HA (a macromolecule with a native MW that ranges higher than 1x106 Da) into shorter chain LMW fragments.
* Fourth, hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract was shown to inhibit hyaluronidase in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner (Figure 2).