Stephanofilariasis is caused by nematodes of the genus Stephanofilaria, a chronic disease that occurs in dairy cattle, with prevalence in the summer because it is transmitted by flies (1, 2).
The technicians who provided this information also mentioned that approximately 30% of large dairy farms in Southern Brazil have had isolated cases of stephanofilariasis (personal communication), but the occurrence of an outbreak, with various animals affected in the same property at the same period are rare.
The clinical diagnosis from the veterinarian was stephanofilariasis based on anamnesis, wound characteristics and high incidence of similar cases in the region.
Stephanofilariasis cases in animals (8-10) and humans (11) as well as epidemiological data, diagnosis and treatment have been described by researchers.
According to researchers the major outbreaks of flies occur in rainy warm seasons in Brazil, as the period from December to March (8), the same period with greater incidence of stephanofilariasis, as was observed in this study.
The stephanofilariasis usually occurs in dairy cattle, which is characterized by causing lesions on cranial-ventral region of the mammary gland (10), similar to what was observed in this study.
A study by Miyakawa, Reis and Lisboa (9) compared two methods in diagnosing Stephanofilariasis from tissue collected by biopsy from the edge of the lesions: histopathologic and direct examination of the sediment of isotonic saline solution in which the tissue remained soaked.
Stephanofilariasis is responsible for huge economic losses in term of reduced draught power, delayed puberty and prolonged inter calving period (Rai et al.
Stephanofilariasis in bovines: Prevalence, control and eradication in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.