35 DIC objective with the same video equipment used for whole-animal tilting was used to image micro-tilting of isolated statocysts
These analyzed specimens of Gonionemus have: around a 10 mm width, four radial channels, a manubrium shorter than the umbrella cavity, a mouth with four lips slightly crenulated, four folded gonads along radial channels leaving the distal part free, between 40 and 44 hollow tentacles, each tentacle has ring-like nematocyst clusters and adhesive pads near the distal end, and one or two statocysts
between successive tentacles enclosed in mesoglea near ring canal with a single endodermal club.
The "Veliger" stage appeared after eight to thirteen days and had well developed larval structures (bilobed veil, operculum, statocysts
, foot, columellar muscle, larval heart) and a hardened globular proto-shell.
I think of a statocyst
as an inside-out tennis ball," explained Dr Mooney.
Then the shaking causes the snails statocyst
to release GABA, which binds to the neuron.
Eyes absent, no nuchal organs, no so-called statocysts
dorso-anteriorly; salivary glands inconspicuous; thick, double-circular band of cilia around mouth, which continues as a ventral ciliary band to the last segment, male paired, separated lateral organs in segments 6-11.
appear in the proximal region of the antennular peduncle from stage VII onward.
sinuosa On proximal Linear, 4 Lin, Xu, Huang portion of longitudinally & Wang, 2009 manubrium divided Species Number of Number of Number of Number of statocysts
marginal marginal cirri vesicles bulbs L.
Unlike other invertebrate statocysts
, the ctenophore statocyst
does not require neural or muscular responses to mediate geotaxis (Tamm, 1982, 2014a, b).
are located between the eyes and, when accessed in this way, appear as two small, round cavities.
No immunoreactivity was observed within the statocysts
Scyphozoans, unlike several hydrozoan medusae, do not have true statocysts