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an objective method of investigating, diagnosing, and evaluating refractive errors of the eye, by projection of a beam of light into the eye and observation of the movement of the illuminated area on the retinal surface and of the refraction by the eye of the emergent rays. Called also pupilloscopy and shadow test.
book retinoscopy a type in which the patient focuses on reading a book; commonly used with children.
dynamic retinoscopy a type in which the patient fixes the gaze on a target at a near distance; accommodation is active.
mem retinoscopy a type of dynamic retinoscopy in which the fixation target is a series of letters on the retinoscope, or a card with letters at a normal reading distance.
Nott retinoscopy a type of dynamic retinoscopy in which the fixation target is 40 cm from the eye; the test is first done with the object farther away than the target distance, and then continued while moving it towards the patient until neutrality is observed.
static retinoscopy a type in which the patient fixes the gaze on a target at a long distance in order to relax accommodation.