staphylococcal infections

Staphylococcal Infections



Staphylococcal (staph) infections are communicable conditions caused by certain bacteria and generally characterized by the formation of abscesses. They are the leading cause of primary infections originating in hospitals (nosocomial infections) in the United States.


Classified since the early twentienth century as among the deadliest of all disease-causing organisms, staph exists on the skin or inside the nostrils of 20-30% of healthy people. It is sometimes found in breast tissue, the mouth, and the genital, urinary, and upper respiratory tracts.
Although staph bacteria are usually harmless, when injury or a break in the skin enables the organisms to invade the body and overcome the body's natural defenses, consequences can range from minor discomfort to death. Infection is most apt to occur in:
  • newborns
  • women who are breastfeeding
  • individuals whose immune systems have been undermined by radiation treatments, chemotherapy, or medication
  • intravenous drug users
  • those with surgical incisions, skin disorders, and serious illness like cancer, diabetes, and lung disease

Types of infections

Staph infections produce pus-filled pockets (abscesses) located just beneath the surface of the skin or deep within the body. Risk of infection is greatest among the very young and the very old.
A localized staph infection is confined to a ring of dead and dying white blood cells and bacteria. The skin above it feels warm to the touch. Most of these abscesses eventually burst, and pus that leaks onto the skin can cause new infections.
A small fraction of localized staph infections enter the bloodstream and spread through the body. In children, these systemic (affecting the whole body) or disseminated infections frequently affect the ends of the long bones of the arms or legs, causing a bone infection called osteomyelitis. When adults develop invasive staph infections, bacteria are most apt to cause abscesses of the brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, or spleen.

Staphylococcus aureus

Named for the golden color of the bacteria grown under laboratory conditions, S. aureus is a hardy organism that can survive in extreme temperatures or other inhospitable circumstances. About 70-90% of the population carry this strain of staph in the nostrils at some time. Although present on the skin of only 5-20% of healthy people, as many as 40% carry it elsewhere, such as in the throat, vagina, or rectum, for varying periods of time, from hours to years, without developing symptoms or becoming ill.
S. aureus flourishes in hospitals, where it infects healthcare personnel and patients who have had surgery; who have acute dermatitis, insulin-dependent diabetes, or dialysis-dependent kidney disease; or who receive frequent allergy-desensitization injections. Staph bacteria can also contaminate bedclothes, catheters, and other objects.
S. aureus causes a variety of infections. Boils and inflammation of the skin surrounding a hair shaft (folliculitis) are the most common. Toxic shock (TSS) and scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) are among the most serious.
TOXIC SHOCK. Toxic shock syndrome is a life-threatening infection characterized by severe headache, sore throat, fever as high as 105°F, and a sunburn-like rash that spreads from the face to the rest of the body. Symptoms appear suddenly; they also include dehydration and watery diarrhea.
Inadequate blood flow to peripheral parts of the body (shock) and loss of consciousness occur within the first 48 hours. Between the third and seventh day of illness, skin peels from the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and other parts of the body. Kidney, liver, and muscle damage often occur.
SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME. Rare in adults and most common in newborns and other children under the age of five, scalded skin syndrome originates with a localized skin infection. A mild fever and/or an increase in the number of infection-fighting white blood cells may occur.
A bright red rash spreads from the face to other parts of the body and eventually forms scales. Large, soft blisters develop at the site of infection and elsewhere. When they burst, they expose inflamed skin that looks as if it had been burned.
MISCELLANEOUS INFECTIONS. S. aureus can also cause:
  • arthritis
  • bacteria in the bloodstream (bacteremia)
  • pockets of infection and pus under the skin (carbuncles)
  • tissue inflammation that spreads below the skin, causing pain and swelling (cellulitis)
  • inflammation of the valves and walls of the heart (endocarditis)
  • inflammation of tissue that enclosed and protects the spinal cord and brain (meningitis)
  • inflammation of bone and bone marrow (osteomyelitis)
  • pneumonia

Other strains of staph

S. EPIDERMIDIS. Capable of clinging to tubing (as in that used for intravenous feeding, etc.), prosthetic devices, and other non-living surfaces, S. epidermidis is the organism that most often contaminates devices that provide direct access to the bloodstream.
The primary cause of bacteremia in hospital patients, this strain of staph is most likely to infect cancer patients, whose immune systems have been compromised, and high-risk newborns receiving intravenous supplements.
S. epidermidis also accounts for two of every five cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is endocarditis as a complication of the implantation of an artificial valve in the heart. Although contamination usually occurs during surgery, symptoms of infection may not become evident until a year after the operation. More than half of the patients who develop prosthetic valve endocarditis die.
STAPHYLOCOCCUS SAPROPHYTICUS. Existing within and around the tube-like structure that carries urine from the bladder (urethra) of about 5% of healthy males and females, S. saprophyticus is the second most common cause of unobstructed urinary tract infections (UTIs) in sexually active young women. This strain of staph is responsible for 10-20% of infections affecting healthy outpatients.

Causes and symptoms

Staph bacteria can spread through the air, but infection is almost always the result of direct contact with open sores or body fluids contaminated by these organisms.
Staph bacteria often enter the body through inflamed hair follicles or oil glands. Or they penetrate skin damaged by burns, cuts and scrapes, infection, insect bites, or wounds.
Multiplying beneath the skin, bacteria infect and destroy tissue in the area where they entered the body. Staph infection of the blood (staphylococcal bacteremia) develops when bacteria from a local infection infiltrate the lymph glands and bloodstream. These infections, which can usually be traced to contaminated catheters or intravenous devices, usually cause persistent high fever. They may cause shock. They also can cause death within a short time.

Warning signs

Common symptoms of staph infection include:
  • pain or swelling around a cut, or an area of skin that has been scraped
  • boils or other skin abscesses
  • blistering, peeling, or scaling of the skin; this is most common in infants and young children
  • enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin
A family physician should be notified whenever:
  • Lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin become swollen or tender.
  • An area of skin that has been cut or scraped becomes painful or swollen, feels hot, or produces pus. These symptoms may mean the infection has spread to the bloodstream.
  • A boil or carbuncle appears on any part of the face or spine. Staph infections affecting these areas can spread to the brain or spinal cord.
  • A boil becomes very sore. Usually a sign that infection has spread, this condition may be accompanied by fever, chills, and red streaks radiating from the site of the original infection.
  • Boils that develop repeatedly. This type of recurrent infection could be a symptom of diabetes.


Blood tests that show unusually high concentrations of white blood cells can suggest staph infection, but diagnosis is based on laboratory analysis of material removed from pus-filled sores, and on analysis of normally uninfected body fluids, such as, blood and urine. Also, x rays can enable doctors to locate internal abscesses and estimate the severity of infection. Needle biopsy (removing tissue with a needle, then examining it under a microscope) may be used to assess bone involvement.


Superficial staph infections can generally be cured by keeping the area clean, using soaps that leave a germ-killing film on the skin, and applying warm, moist compresses to the affected area for 20-30 minutes three or four times a day.
Severe or recurrent infections may require a seven to 10 day course of treatment with penicillin or other oral antibiotics. The location of the infection and the identity of the causal bacteria determines which of several effective medications should be prescribed.
In case of a more serious infection, antibiotics may be administered intravenously for as long as six weeks. Intravenous antibiotics are also used to treat staph infections around the eyes or on other parts of the face.
Surgery may be required to drain or remove abscesses that form on internal organs, or on shunts or other devices implanted inside the body.

Alternative treatment

Alternative therapies for staph infection are meant to strengthen the immune system and prevent recurrences. Among the therapies believed to be helpful for the person with a staph infection are yoga (to stimulate the immune system and promote relaxation), acupuncture (to draw heat away from the infection), and herbal remedies. Herbs that may help the body overcome, or withstand, staph infection include:
  • Garlic (Allium sativum). This herb is believed to have anitbacterial properties. Herbalists recommend consuming three garlic cloves or three garlic oil capsules a day, starting when symptoms of infection first appear.
  • Cleavers (Galium aparine). This anti-inflammatory herb is believed to support the lymphatic system. It may be taken internally to help heal staph abscesses and reduce swelling of the lymph nodes. A cleavers compress can also be applied directly to a skin infection.
  • Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Another herb believed to fight infection and reduce imflammation, goldenseal may be taken internally when symptoms of infection first appear. Skin infections can be treated by making a paste of water and powdered goldenseal root and applying it directly to the affected area. The preparation should be covered with a clean bandage and left in place overnight.
  • Echinacea (Echinacea spp.). Taken internally, this herb is believed to have antibiotic properties and is also thought to strengthen the immune system.
  • Thyme (Thymus vulgaris), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), or bergamot (Citrus bergamot) oils. These oils are believed to have antibacterial properties and may help to prevent the scarring that may result from skin infections. A few drops of these oils are added to water and then a compress soaked in the water is applied to the affected area.
  • Tea tree oil (Melaleuca spp.). Another infection-fighting herb, this oil can be applied directly to a boil or other skin infection.


Most healthy people who develop staph infections recover fully within a short time. Others develop repeated infections. Some become seriously ill, requiring long-term therapy or emergency care. A small percentage die.


Healthcare providers and patients should always wash their hands thoroughly with warm water and soap after treating a staph infection or touching an open wound or the pus it produces. Pus that oozes onto the skin from the site of an infection should be removed immediately. This affected area should then be cleansed with antiseptic or with antibacterial soap.

Key terms

Abscess — A cavity containing pus surrounded by inflamed tissue.
Endocarditis — Inflammation of the lining of the heart, and/or the heart valves, caused by infection.
Nosocomial infections — Infections that were not present before the patient came to a hospital, but were acquired by a patient while in the hospital.
To prevent infection from spreading from one part of the body to another, it is important to shower rather than bathe during the healing process. Because staph infection is easily transmitted from one member of a household to others, towels, washcloths, and bed linens used by someone with a staph infection should not be used by anyone else. They should be changed daily until symptoms disappear, and laundered separately in hot water with bleach.
Children should frequently be reminded not to share:
  • brushes, combs, or hair accessories
  • caps
  • clothing
  • sleeping bags
  • sports equipment
  • other personal items
A diet rich in green, yellow, and orange vegetables can bolster natural immunity. A doctor or nutritionist may recommend vitamins or mineral supplements to compensate for specific dietary deficiencies. Drinking eight to 10 glasses of water a day can help flush disease-causing organisms from the body.
Because some strains of staph bacteria are known to contaminate artificial limbs, prosthetic devices implanted within the body, and tubes used to administer medication or drain fluids from the body, catheters and other devices should be removed on a regular basis, if possible, and examined for microscopic signs of staph. Symptoms may not become evident until many months after contamination has occurred, so this practice should be followed even with patients who show no sign of infection.



Civetta, Joseph M., et al., editors. Critical Care. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

staphylococcal infections

Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

Patient discussion about staphylococcal infections

Q. What is MRSA? I’ve heard on the news that some hospitals have a higher rate of MRSA infection. What is MRSA?

MRSA - Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, is a nick name for a specific subtype of bacteria from the Staph bacteria family, which is found resistant to many of the common antibiotics that are in use today. This is due to a mutation development in the Staph bacteria, which allowed it to grow resistance against the killing ingredient in common antibiotics, therefore making it a harder infection to treat and cure. Hospitals keep track of their MRSA infections for epidemiological reasons, in order to get a perspective on bacterial resistance to antibiotics, hoping new and more effective antibiotic medication will be researched.

More discussions about staphylococcal infections
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References in periodicals archive ?
Community-acquired enterococcal infections can be treated with amoxicillin, and staphylococcal infections with oral cloxacillin or intravenous (IV) cefazolin (1 g IV every 8 hours).
According to Health Undersecretary Rolando Enrique Domingo, the bacteria that causes salmonella and staphylococcal infections often thrive in food prepared with cream, milk, eggs and mayonnaise.
The company has designed the drug for the prevention of post-surgical staphylococcal infections.
The aim of this bundle is to see a reduction in staphylococcal infections by at least 20 per cent.
Clindamycin has become an excellent drug for some Staphylococcal infections, particularly skin and soft tissue infections and as an alternative in penicillin allergic patients.
However, transferable methicillin resistance might bear the consequence of an almost complete loss of [beta]-lactam drugs as the most efficient class of antibacterial drugs for treatment of staphylococcal infections. Here, we report both a plasmid-encoded, and thereby transferable, methicillin resistance encoded by mecB and the occurrence of this gene in an isolate of the genus Staphylococcus.
As pathogens of significant public health concern, understanding the starvation-survival strategies that staphylococci employ in their persistence can aid in better clinical practices and the development of novel therapeutic strategies in combating staphylococcal infections.
For resistant staphylococcal infections, cloxacillin/fluocloxacillin should be used.
Coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in the neonate and child: an update.
Medline Plus, Staphylococcal Infections,
The high transmissibility, the elevated pathogenic potential and the possibility of resistance to multiple antibiotics are items that contribute to staphylococcal infections in hospitals and other health-care services.
Nuttall (2016) suggested Cephalexin and Clavulanate potentiated Amoxicillin were first line of drugs for Staphylococcal infections as they have better penetration and least ototoxic in nature.

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