The prognostic factors were patient age (<60/[greater than or equal to]60 years), staging (I-IV), S1 involvement, S2 involvement, T involvement, M involvement, development of mastoid cells (MC0-1/MC2-3), pathological status of the stapes
(S0/S1), surgical procedure (CWU/CWD), malleus handle (present/absent), chorda tympani nerve (present/absent), and middle ear mucosa (normal/diseased).
A systematic review of the effect of piston diameter in stapes
surgery for otosclerosis on hearing results.
(10) Higher grades of disease extent and lower Hounsfield densities correspond to increased audiologic air and bone conduction thresholds for hearing stimulation, as well as an increased incidence of stapes
footplate complications at time of surgery.
The laser stapedectomy is a procedure, which permits the surgeon to operate without touching the stapes
. An opening is made in the frozen stapes
footplate and prosthesis is inserted to allow sound waves to enter the inner ear, which restores the sound conducting mechanism and hearing.
CT demonstrates the opacification over the stapes
footplate (arrow), originally reported as a sclerotic plaque but determined to be a PSA.
Reflective beads were placed on the BM at different longitudinal locations and on the head of stapes
, as shown in Figure 1(a).
The blood supply of the stapes
in previous studies also concurs with the findings in our study: G.
Footplate Response to Round Window Stimulation.
where [d.sub.tr] is stapes
displacement excited directly by the piezostack (ignoring the structure of the coupling rod) and [d.sub.tr_rod] is transducer excited stapes
displacement considering the structure of the coupling rod.
Examinations in April 2011 suggested stapes
fixation, but he refused explorative tympanotomy.
superstructures were removed by crural scissors and stapes
footplate was perforated by microdrill.
All of these cases also report fixation of the stapes
footplate, and tympanometry reveals stiffening of the ossicular chain.