Initially the network is supplied by the stapedial artery
and later by the external carotid artery.
Prevalence of facial canal dehiscence and of persistent stapedial artery
in the human middle ear: A report of 1000 temporal bones.
For example, a study validating the involvement of the stapedial artery as the impetus that causes facial malformations characterized as hemifacial microsomia would have already been previously presented due to the number of reports published by Poswillo's group in the sixties and seventies that discussed the same theory.
The theory of vascular injury, primarily to the stapedial artery, is one that has held weight throughout the years.
Arterial causes of pulsatile tinnitus include carotid artery stenosis, carotid occlusion, dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia, a persistent stapedial artery
, and an aberrant or lateralized internal carotid artery course.
Later the stapedial artery develops from the dorsal aspect of the second arch artery and passes through the condensed mesenchymal site of the future ring of stapes to anastamose with the ventral pharyngeal artery thereby annexing its terminal distribution.
The fully developed stapedial artery possesses three branches mandibular, maxillary and supraorbital which follow the divisions of the fifth nerve.
1,3) It has been postulated that factors that contribute to facial nerve canal dehiscence include heredity, inhibition of proper canal wall formation, and a persistent stapedial artery
This most common area of dehiscence is probably secondary to the failure of ossification after the stapedial artery
(which passes through this area) resorbs prior to birth.
A jugular-bulb anomaly is sometimes associated with a persistent stapedial artery and a diverticulum of the jugular bulb that protrudes into the hypotympanum.
A persistent stapedial artery is a rare vascular anomaly, and it can occur with or without an associated aberrant internal carotid artery.
This explanation is supported by the association of the lateralized carotid artery with a persistent stapedial artery
[5,6] and with a fibrous band at the site of the artery.