The onset of peak patellofemoral joint reaction force (JRF) occurs later in stance phase
during BW compared to FW,  and the peak patellofemoral JRF is lower during backward running compared to forward running at the same speed.
According to this study, unloading the body weight while running reduced EMG muscle activities in all measured muscle groups except for hip adductors during the swing phase and hamstrings in the stance phase
of the running cycle (13).
If the data from each sensor exceeds the predetermined threshold, it means that the exoskeleton is in the stance phase
Based on cyclograms it can be concluded that the gait of transtibial amputees is similar to normal gait at the stance phase
. For example, at the loading response sub-phase there is diminished flexion of the knee and hip.
Previous studies highlighted the existence of alterations of knee flexion-extension during gait, especially in terms of inadequate extension in the stance phase
As shown in Figure 1, a full gait cycle includes a stance phase
and a swing phase, where 60% of the cycle is spent in stance and 40% in swing .
Therefore, the phase-dependent muscle activation of the plantar flexors was evaluated using the ratio of the integrated activity of the gastrocnemius during the swing phase to the activity of the muscle over the entire step cycle (swing and stance phase
This was further reflected in an earlier transition of CTRL group from a lean towards the stance limb, moving towards the contralateral limb during midstance, which happened at a mean (SD) of 59 (17)% of the stance phase
compared to a significantly delayed transition at 71 (21)% of stance for OA participants (F = 10.186; p = 0.004, Figure 3).
In theory, the true velocity of the pedestrian shoes should be zero when the shoe is on the floor (so called stance phase
Foothold pattern diagram is a useful tool to depict the gait in which the white bars represent the swing phase of a leg and the black bars represent the stance phase
. If the leg's number was defined as shown in Figure 3, then the foothold pattern diagram of regular tripod gait is shown in Figure 4.
The secondary aim of this study was to assess whether temporal stride parameters (cadence and stance phase
duration) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) change over the duration of 6 minutes of walking.
The right hindlimb (RH) was used as a reference for this sequence, which then starts with the stance phase
of this limb.