, methyl glucopyranoside (a + (5), dihydroferulic acid, and galactonate were proposed as new metabolic signatures to distinguish the intake of orange juice with different polyphenol content in the BIONAOS study, which compared a normal-polyphenol orange juice with a high-polyphenol orange juice for 12 weeks in a randomized parallel study (43).
ameliorates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress through inhibiting NF-[kappa]B and JAK/STAT signaling pathways in rats," International Immunopharmacology, vol.
In the aerial parts of Leonurus cardiaca, there are ingredients belonging to the group of terpenes, including monoterpenes such as iridoids , diterpenes of clerodane , furanolabdane, and labdane types , triterpenes including ursolic and oleanolic acids [11,12], nitrogen-containing compounds such as leonurine  and stachydrine
14], and phenylpropanoids such as lavandulifolioside , as well as flavonoids , phenolic acids , volatile oils , sterols , and tannins.
Except essential oil, plants in this family can also produce alkaloids, for example, leonurine and stachydrine, with many physiological functions [12,13].
Tong et al., "Effect of stachydrine on endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in rat kidney after unilateral ureteral obstruction," Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, vol.
The major pharmacologically active constituents of LH extracts are alkaloids, such as stachydrine
, leonurine, leonurinineand betonicine.