Sputum


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sputum

 [spu´tum]
mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea that is ejected through the mouth, in contrast to saliva, which is the secretion of the salivary glands. Called also expectoration.
induced sputum a sputum specimen produced for diagnostic tests by aerosol administration of a hypertonic saline solution.
sputum specimen a sample of mucous secretion from the bronchi and lungs. The specimen may be examined microscopically for the presence of malignant cells (cytologic examination) or tested to identify pathogenic bacteria (bacteriologic examination). It is essential that the specimen obtained be mucus from the lungs and bronchi and not saliva. For those unable to produce sputum for examination, an aerosol may be used to increase the flow of secretions and stimulate coughing. The optimum time for collection of a sputum specimen is in the morning before eating or drinking anything. At this time secretions accumulated in the bronchi through the night are more readily available, and, should the coughing produce gagging, the patient is less likely to vomit if the stomach is empty. Specimens collected for bacteriologic culture must be placed in a sterile container and handled with care to avoid contamination from sources other than the sputum.

spu·tum

, pl.

spu·ta

(spyū'tŭm, -tă), Although the sense of the Latin word includes spittle or saliva, in medical usage sputum refers to secretions expelled from the lower respiratory tract.
1. Expectorated matter, especially mucus or mucopurulent matter expectorated in diseases of the air passages.
See also: expectoration (1).
2. An individual mass of such matter.
[L. sputum, fr. spuo, pp. sputus, to spit]

sputum

(spyo͞o′təm)
n. pl. spu·ta (-tə)
Matter coughed up and usually ejected from the mouth, including saliva, foreign material, and substances such as mucus or phlegm, from the respiratory tract.

sputum

Semiliquid diagnostic 'goo' obtained from deep coughs from the lungs, bronchi, trachea, which is collected sterilely and examined by cytology and/or cultured Complications Laceration of coronary arteries, or liver due to puncture, arrhythmias caused by needle irritation, vasovagal arrest, pneumothorax, infection. See Brick-red sputum, Currant jelly sputum, Induced sputum, Prune juice sputum, Rusty sputum.
Sputum–diagnostic utility
Cytologic examination Specimen is smeared on a glass slide, stained with one of several dyes, and examined by LM; the only cells seen in normal sputa are those of tracheobronchial tree and lungs.
Culture & sensitivity The specimen is swabbed on a culture plate in the microbiology laboratory to detect the growth of potentially harmful bacteria or fungi

spu·tum

(spyū'tŭm)
1. Expectorated matter, especially mucus or mucopurulent matter expectorated in diseases of the air passages.
See also: expectoration (1)
2. An individual mass of such matter.
[L. sputum, fr. spuo, pp. sputus, to spit]

sputum

Mucus, often mixed with PUS or blood, that is secreted by the goblet cells in the MUCOUS MEMBRANE lining of the respiratory tubes (BRONCHI and BRONCHIOLES). Excess sputum prompts the cough reflex. Also known as phlegm.

sputum

material coughed up from the respiratory tract, whose colour, volume, smell and consistency are important in the diagnosis and management of respiratory disorders.

Sputum

The substance that is brought up from the lungs and airway when a person coughs or spits. It is usually a mixture of saliva and mucus, but may contain blood or pus in patients with lung abscess or other diseases of the lungs.

spu·tum

(spyū'tŭm)
1. Expectorated matter, especially mucus or mucopurulent matter expectorated in diseases of the air passages.
2. An individual mass of such matter.
[L. sputum, fr. spuo, pp. sputus, to spit]
References in periodicals archive ?
Sputum samples were examined for physical appearance, gram stain, acid fast bacilli smear, pyogenic culture for bacterial organism and drug sensitivity testing.
In our study we were able to make diagnosis of PTB in 69.2% of patients who were not able to produce sputum.
Among the 102 sputum samples evaluated for the presence of AFB, positivity shown was almost similar using five different counter stains.
A significant increase of sputum CFL1 was observed in patients with lung cancer (1475.83 [+ or -] 145.35 pg/mL) compared to cancer-free patients (662.63 [+ or -]5.74 pg/mL) and healthy volunteers (415.25 [+ or -] 3.68 pg/mL) (P=0.01) (Figure 1).
SSM is largely dependent on operational techniques and diagnostic equipment including the type of microscope, smearing techniques, skills of lab technicians and the quality of samples.10,11 With all standard practices, SSM is less sensitive than the latest tools like Xpert testing; therefore, use of more sensitive instruments might enhance smear positivity.12 Further evaluation of all presumptive cases who came negative on sputum is a challenging task in hard-to-reach areas resulting in lack of follow-up of many sputum smear negative patients; less clinically diagnosed cases.
This study was done to assess the nutritional status in sputum smear positive and sputum smear-negative cases of PTB.
Hopkin, "DNA amplification on induced sputum samples for diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia," The Lancet, vol.
Data from the two periods were compared for the proportion of patients investigated for TB who tested positive by sputum smear microscopy, liquid culture or Xpert MTB/RIF, and the proportion of sputum smear microscopy, liquid culture or Xpert MRB/RIF tests that were positive.
In such a scenario, identification of factors associated with persistent sputum positivity at the end of IP may be helpful in stratifying such patients.
To determine the clinical significance of dysregulated expressions of ncRNAs in tissue and sputum for diagnosis of NSCLC, expression changes of 6 cancer-associated ncRNAs, miR-223, miR-212, miR-192, miR-3074, SNORD33 and SNORD37, in 17 NSCLC patients and 17 cancer free subjects were evaluated.
Alpha-diversity analysis showed that community richness (Ace and Chao indices) of BALF was higher than those in oral wash or in sputum ( P < 0.05) [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b.
Sputum, which is the most common specimen type for diagnosing TB, is very challenging to process, particularly for molecular testing methods.