sputum


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sputum

 [spu´tum]
mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea that is ejected through the mouth, in contrast to saliva, which is the secretion of the salivary glands. Called also expectoration.
induced sputum a sputum specimen produced for diagnostic tests by aerosol administration of a hypertonic saline solution.
sputum specimen a sample of mucous secretion from the bronchi and lungs. The specimen may be examined microscopically for the presence of malignant cells (cytologic examination) or tested to identify pathogenic bacteria (bacteriologic examination). It is essential that the specimen obtained be mucus from the lungs and bronchi and not saliva. For those unable to produce sputum for examination, an aerosol may be used to increase the flow of secretions and stimulate coughing. The optimum time for collection of a sputum specimen is in the morning before eating or drinking anything. At this time secretions accumulated in the bronchi through the night are more readily available, and, should the coughing produce gagging, the patient is less likely to vomit if the stomach is empty. Specimens collected for bacteriologic culture must be placed in a sterile container and handled with care to avoid contamination from sources other than the sputum.

spu·tum

, pl.

spu·ta

(spyū'tŭm, -tă), Although the sense of the Latin word includes spittle or saliva, in medical usage sputum refers to secretions expelled from the lower respiratory tract.
1. Expectorated matter, especially mucus or mucopurulent matter expectorated in diseases of the air passages.
See also: expectoration (1).
2. An individual mass of such matter.
[L. sputum, fr. spuo, pp. sputus, to spit]

sputum

/spu·tum/ (spu´tum) [L.] expectoration; matter ejected from the trachea, bronchi, and lungs through the mouth.
sputum cruen´tum  bloody sputum.
nummular sputum  sputum in rounded coinlike disks.
rusty sputum  sputum stained with blood or blood pigments.

sputum

(spyo͞o′təm)
n. pl. spu·ta (-tə)
Matter coughed up and usually ejected from the mouth, including saliva, foreign material, and substances such as mucus or phlegm, from the respiratory tract.

sputum

[spyo̅o̅′təm]
Etymology: L, spittle
material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated through the mouth. It contains mucus, cellular debris, or microorganisms, and it also may contain blood or pus. The amount, color, and constituents of the sputum are important in the diagnosis of many illnesses, including tuberculosis, pneumonia, cancer of the lung, and the pneumoconioses.

sputum

Semiliquid diagnostic 'goo' obtained from deep coughs from the lungs, bronchi, trachea, which is collected sterilely and examined by cytology and/or cultured Complications Laceration of coronary arteries, or liver due to puncture, arrhythmias caused by needle irritation, vasovagal arrest, pneumothorax, infection. See Brick-red sputum, Currant jelly sputum, Induced sputum, Prune juice sputum, Rusty sputum.
Sputum–diagnostic utility
Cytologic examination Specimen is smeared on a glass slide, stained with one of several dyes, and examined by LM; the only cells seen in normal sputa are those of tracheobronchial tree and lungs.
Culture & sensitivity The specimen is swabbed on a culture plate in the microbiology laboratory to detect the growth of potentially harmful bacteria or fungi

spu·tum

(spyū'tŭm)
1. Expectorated matter, especially mucus or mucopurulent matter expectorated in diseases of the air passages.
See also: expectoration (1)
2. An individual mass of such matter.
[L. sputum, fr. spuo, pp. sputus, to spit]

sputum

Mucus, often mixed with PUS or blood, that is secreted by the goblet cells in the MUCOUS MEMBRANE lining of the respiratory tubes (BRONCHI and BRONCHIOLES). Excess sputum prompts the cough reflex. Also known as phlegm.

sputum

material coughed up from the respiratory tract, whose colour, volume, smell and consistency are important in the diagnosis and management of respiratory disorders.

Sputum

The substance that is brought up from the lungs and airway when a person coughs or spits. It is usually a mixture of saliva and mucus, but may contain blood or pus in patients with lung abscess or other diseases of the lungs.

spu·tum

(spyū'tŭm)
1. Expectorated matter, especially mucus or mucopurulent matter expectorated in diseases of the air passages.
2. An individual mass of such matter.
[L. sputum, fr. spuo, pp. sputus, to spit]

sputum (spū´təm),

n a matter ejected from the oral cavity; saliva mixed with mucus and other substances from the respiratory tract.

sputum

mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi and trachea which is ejected through the mouth by humans but not so in animals and it is assumed that it is swallowed.

sputum cup
a small—1 inch diameter—cup on a long handle for the collection of sputum from the pharynx of a large animal.
sputum specimen
a sample of mucous secretion from the bronchi and lungs. The specimen may be examined microscopically for the presence of malignant cells (cytological examination) or tested to identify pathogenic bacteria (bacteriological examination).
References in periodicals archive ?
Data for the proportion of tests reported as invalid were collected to evaluate differences between sputum smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF laboratory processes.
After obtaining informed consent, a pre-tested questionnaire was administered by "direct-interview" method to collect data regarding sociodemographic factors, clinical history, addictions, sputum smear grading, and comorbid conditions such as HIV, diabetes mellitus, and undernutrition.
1 ml of TRIzol (Ambion, USA) and 750 [micro]/ of TRIzol-LS (Ambion, USA) were added to the individual homogenized tissue and sputum samples, respectively.
sA composite diagnostic index (Comprising of sputum AFB smear and/or radiology, and/or clinical judgement, and/or response to antitubercular drugs) was considered as the reference standard for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in this study and result of CBNAAT was compared with that composite diagnostic index.
In summary, our data provide direct evidence to evaluate sampling methods for investigating bacterial microbiome in airways, while induced sputum samples represent those in the lower airway in a great extent.
05% of the total positive sputum cultures which is superior to a recent study done in Peshawar, Pakistan in 2015 by Abbas et al.
Sputum samples decontaminated by Petroff's method and NALC-NaOH was inoculated on Middlebrook's 7H11 agar medium (Hi Media, Mumbai) and incubated aerobically at 37[degrees]C for 4 to 8 weeks, was observed for growth once every week upto 8 weeks.
Mycobacterial DNA was extracted from one part of the decontaminated smear positive sputum samples using GenoLyse[R], VER1.
The main source of tuberculosis infection is the patient with active pulmonary TB whose sputum contains tubercle bacilli which are transmitted to others via air5,6.
In this review, oxidative stress-derived products in the sputum were briefly discussed: in order, first, to demonstrate the current body of evidence supporting their application as biomarkers in the management of inflammatory airways diseases and, second, to identify gaps in knowledge which should be further investigated in the future.
and COPD, the time of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis, treatment initiation time, and the number of live bacilli in sputum sample before the treatment followed by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months after treatment.
PTB with secondary bacterial infection can be the presenting manifestation in them rendering initial sputum smear examination negative.