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a spiculated red blood cell with 5-10 spiny projections of varying length distributed irregularly over the cell surface; seen in patients with liver disease and abetalipoproteinemia.
AcanthocyteA densely stained spheroidal red cell with multiple (usually 5–12), irregularly distributed, thorn-like spicules of variable size, often with drumstick ends.
Aetiology Hereditary abetalipoproteinemia* (hereditary acanthocytosis), severe (end stage) liver disease, hepatorenal failure, anorexia nervosa, chronic starvation. A small number of acanthocytes may be seen in severe haemolytic anaemia, especially post splenectomy, haemolytic anaemia due to pyruvate kinase deficiency, in neonatal hepatitis, after heparin administration, and rarely also in otherwise normal blood smears (one or two per smear), where they correspond to older, effete red cells approaching their “expiration” date of 120 days.
*Accompanied by decreased total serum lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, vitamin E, vitamin A
spur cell(spŭr sel)
A spiculated erythrocyte with 5-10 spiny projections of varying length distributed irregularly over the cell surface; seen in patients with liver disease and abetalipoproteinemia.