It assumed that cold pre-treatment slows down metabolism so suppresses normal gametophytic pathway and triggers sporophytic
Germination and sporophytic
development of Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman (Marsileaceae) in the presence of hexavalent chromium.
apomixis appears to be facultative in most cases (RICHARDS, 1997) and can occur concurrently with sexual reproduction.
Similar to axons in the development of the nervous system, the directional growth of pollen tubes is controlled by multifarious interactions with the sporophytic
pistil and the female gametophyte (Okuda & Higashiyama, 2010).
Because gametophytic development is an essential stage in the fern life cycle, impacts of heavy metal hyperaccumulation on gametophytic and sporophytic
tissue must be investigated if successional bioremediation efforts are to be implemented successfully.
embryo The basic sporophytic
plant that develops from a zygote inside an archegonium or an ovule.
These included the replacements of the bamboo bundles by horizontal nets as a new substrate for cultivation (1930); the development of controlled methods for sowing the nets, after the important discovery of the conchocelis stage, the sporophytic
generation of Porphyra's life cycle (1949-1954); the introduction of cold storage (-4[degrees]F [-20[degrees]C]) of germinated nets (1960-1970); and the design of the floating cultivation system, with a following spread of cultivation to less polluted zones further from the coast.
Effects of pollination intensity on the vigor of the sporophytic
and gametophytic generation of Cucurbita texana.
The morphology of both gametophytic and sporophytic
generations is an upright frond with many branched, flattened, corticated blades supported by a narrow stipe (Algal Morphology Group Four sensu Steneck and Dethier 1994) that arises from a perennial basal disc holdfast.
In all seed plants, the entire ontogeny of the seed plant female gametophyte occurs within the confines of the sporophytic
tissues of the ovule.
(2005), autoincompatibility in plants can be of two natures: gametophytic, when the phenotype of the pollen grain corresponds to its own genotype, and sporophytic
, when the phenotype of the pollen grain is the same of its origin plant, where commonly, Passiflora presents it as mechanism for the determination of alogamy the incompatibility of the sporophytic
Temperature shock (high or low temperature) is recommended to improve gynogenesis by diverting normal gametophytic development into a sporophytic
pathway resulting in haploid embryo formation (Shalaby, 2007; Chen et al., 2011).