From mycohetereotrophy to mutualism: mycorrhizal specificity and functioning in Ophioglossum vulgatum sporophytes
. New Phytologist, 205, 1492-1502.
Samples from each treatment were analyzed in triplicate by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in a graphite oven (AAS 110, Varian) to assess the concentration of lead accumulated in the sporophytes
. The detection limit for lead using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was 0.0015 mg [kg.sup.-1] using a standard Titrisol[R] (Merck) solution.
Until recently, there has been little convincing evidence of mycotrophy in Equisetum species (either in the gametophyte or the sporophyte
stage) and most studies have found essentially no mycorrhizal colonization of horsetails (Read et al., 2000).
Inoculation in tanks facilitates the adhesion and development of more than 10 sporophytes
per linear cm of rope and the latter possibility of obtaining samples for comparisons of morphological development.
The gametophytes and juvenile sporophytes
of Blechnum orientale L.
After exposure to oligoguluronate, Laminaria digitata sporophytes
became more resistant to infection with a brown algal endophyte, Laminariocolax tomentosoides (Kupper et al, 2002).
Plant not filamentous, occurring as both gametophyte and sporophyte
(gametophytes usually in association with sporophytes
Recruitment at one of the two clearings was sparse, and the small sporophytes
were completely grazed away, as a front of sea urchins moved through.
purpureus are perennial, whereas the diploid sporophytes
are formed once per year and last several months before they release their spores and disintegrate.
The growth and death of the Macrocvstis sporophyte
Sometimes, apogamy with formation of gametangia has been documented (Migliaro & Gabriel y Galan 2012), and has been said to be facultative/induced, i.e., the plant could either experience sexual contacts or, due to some external facts, produce apogamous sporophytes
; however, some apogamous ferns are known to produce no gametangia at all, or gametangia failed to produce viable, normal gametes, so the apogamy is obligated (Raghavan 1989).