The ability to propagate this species in vitro and to cryopreserve propagating lines of gametophytes and sporophytes
provides a group of additional tools for maintaining germplasm ex situ and producing plants to contribute to research and the long-term management and conservation of this species.
Norton Miller has elegantly summarized the amalgamation of features that makes a plant a bryophyte as "a dominant and variously elaborated gametophyte; and a subordinate, non-append-aged sporophyte
attached continuously throughout its life to the gametophyte and with a single terminal sporangium".
Differentiation of intracapsular cells in the sporophyte
of Sphaerocarpos donnellii.
With the phytochrome system, the spore detects light in the clearings of the forest and the proximity to the soil surface, which thus allows for spores to germinate in favorable conditions for the growth of the gametophyte and sporophyte
(Perez-Garcia et al.
In an "antithetic view" of sporophyte
origin, the only view well suited to this particular "asexual scenario," the sporophyte
is seen as a generally upgrade development, progressively coping with distribution in a dynamic, often harsh, land-based environment; it is seen as derived from original sporophytes
that were probably little more than small masses of spores (sporophytes
represented in appearance perhaps by those of such liverworts as Riccia and Ricciocarpus).
Fortunately, most terrestrial clubmosses are excellent candidates for asexual sporophyte
propagation due to their largely clonal growth habit.
based on reconstruction of the sporophyte
phase by Edwards (1986) and of the gametophyte phase as summarized by Remy et al.
This observation raises questions on the evolution and development of glabrousness in this clade and it would be interesting to see if the young sporophytes
of other members of this clade have similar patterns of development.
The gametophyte and gemmae are more tolerant of desiccation or freezing than are the sporophytes
of other taxa in Trichomanes and Vittaria (Farrar, 1985).
This suggestion could be realized from the observations of a recent study (Muthukumar and Prabha, 2012) where gametophytes and young sporophytes
of Nephrolepis exaltata growing on soilless substrates like coir or bricks were predominantly colonized by DSE fungi.
Recherches sur le determinisme de la dominance apicale chez la fougere aquatique Marsilea drummondii: Apport d'observations histologiques des bourgeons lateraux de sporophytes
intacts et decapites.
Spores were cultured in plastic containers filled with soil collected with the sporophytes