spontaneous pneumothorax


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spon·ta·ne·ous pneu·mo·thor·ax

[MIM*173600]
pneumothorax occurring without iatrogenic or other trauma; primary spontaneous pneumothorax generally occurs in young people with apical blebs but otherwise normal lungs; secondary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in people with underlying lung disease, most commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, less often, interstitial lung disease, pneumonia, lung abscess, and lung tumors.

spontaneous pneumothorax

Etymology: L, sponte, free will; Gk, pneuma, air, thorax, chest
the presence of air or gas in the pleural space as a result of a rupture of the lung parenchyma and visceral pleura with no demonstrable cause.

spontaneous pneumothorax

Emergency medicine A condition affecting ± 17,000/yr–US, which may be idiopathic or 2º to underlying pulmonary disease–eg, COPD, most commonly occurring in previously healthy tall, thin ♂, age 20-40, 2º to rupture of subpleural blebs At-risk Smokers, family Hx of SP, asthma, emphysema, pneumothorax, rapid ascent to high altitude, histiocytosis.
Clinical Abrupt chest pain, with SOB proportionate to the size of the pneumothorax; tension pneumothorax, while rare, may compromise the circulation by a ball-valve mechanism Treatment Suction followed by water seal drainage Prognosis 30% recur on the same side, a tendency that may be ↓ by intrapleural tetracycline; 10% occur de novo on the opposite side

spon·ta·ne·ous pneu·mo·thor·ax

(spon-tā'nē-ŭs nū'mō-thōr'aks)
Air or gas in the pleural cavity occurring secondary to parenchymal lung disease, usually from an emphysematous bulla that ruptures or occasionally from a lung abscess.

spontaneous pneumothorax

Sudden and unexpected incursion of air into the space between the two layers of the PLEURA so that the underlying lung collapses. The usual cause is rupture of a congenital bleb on the inner pleural layer so that air passes from the lung. In most cases the leak seals itself and the lung soon re-expands.

Spontaneous pneumothorax

Air in the chest cavity that occurs because of disease or other naturally occurring cause. Air and blood together in this space is called a pneumohemothorax.

pneumothorax

entry of air into the pleural cavity in sufficient quantity to cause collapse of the lung and consequent respiratory embarrassment. If it is unilateral there is a mediastinal shift with displacement of the heart to the other side of the chest. Breath sounds are absent from the affected side.
Enlarge picture
Pneumothorax. By permission from Ettinger SJ, Feldman E, Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Saunders, 2004

closed pneumothorax
air leaks from a discontinuity in the lung into the pleural cavity.
false pneumothorax
artifactual increased radiolucency of the thorax resembling free air in the pleural cavity.
iatrogenic pneumothorax
may occur following intrathoracic surgery or in association with procedures which involve entry into the pleural cavity, such as thoracentesis or placement of a chest drain.
open pneumothorax
caused by an open wound in the chest wall.
spontaneous pneumothorax
due to an unknown cause.
tension pneumothorax
a particularly dangerous form of pneumothorax that occurs when air escapes into the pleural cavity from a bronchus but cannot regain entry into the bronchus. As a result, continuously increasing air pressure in the pleural cavity causes progressive collapse of the lung tissue. If not relieved, it can lead to lung collapse and mediastinal shift.
References in periodicals archive ?
Among the 50 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax evaluated in the study, 41 were males (82%) and nine were females (18%), and the mean age was 33.
A clinical study about symptomatic spontaneous pneumothorax.
In 2001, the American College of Chest Physicians Consensus Conference stated that thoracoscopy paired with mechanical pleural abrasion represents the preferred approach to prevent Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax (PSP) recurrence despite the British Thoracic Society's guidelines.
Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax is more serious than primary spontaneous pneumothorax because it decreases the pulmonary function of a patient with already compromised pulmonary function.
Based on the history and physical findings a high clinical suspicion of primary spontaneous pneumothorax prevailed and the patient was referred to hospital for chest radiography and further investigation.
sup][3] Recently, diabetes mellitus has been found to be an independent risk factor for the development of RPE in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax.
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is caused by various activities such as weight lifting, playing reed instruments, scuba diving, and air travel.
Etiology of spontaneous pneumothorax in 105 HIV-infected patients without highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with expectoration of a lump of metastatic renal cancer.
Thoracoscopy is indicated for the general exploration of the thoracic cavity in cases of trauma, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, spontaneous pneumothorax, intrathoracic masses, primary pulmonary disease, lung lobe torsion, detection of vascular abnormalities and for procedures such as lung biopsy, lobectomy, pericadiectomy, ligation of patent ductus arteriosus and thymectomy (POTTER & HENDRICKSON, 1998; DE ZOPPA et al.
Depending on the extent and nature of any underlying lung disease, resections from any lobe may be obtained, but for spontaneous pneumothorax, the upper lobes are the dominant sites of occurrence and the location from which most surgical specimens are taken.
QI HAD a spontaneous pneumothorax - will it happen again?

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