spontaneous abortion


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Related to spontaneous abortion: induced abortion, missed abortion

abortion

 [ah-bor´shun]
termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable. In the medical sense, this term and the term miscarriage both refer to the termination of pregnancy before the fetus is capable of survival outside the uterus. The term abortion is more commonly used as a synonym for induced abortion, the deliberate interruption of pregnancy, as opposed to miscarriage, which connotes a spontaneous or natural loss of the fetus. Because of this distinction made by the average layperson, care should be exercised in the use of the word abortion when speaking of a spontaneous loss of the fetus.

The technique chosen to terminate pregnancy depends on the stage of pregnancy and the policies of the institution and patient needs. It is rare for a fetus to survive if it weighs less than 500 g, or if the pregnancy is terminated before 20 weeks of gestation. These factors are, however, difficult to determine with a high degree of accuracy while the fetus is still in utero; survival of the fetus delivered near the end of the second trimester often depends to a great extent on the availability of personnel and equipment capable of supporting life until the infant develops sufficiently.

Viability of the fetus outside the uterus is frequently used as the determining factor in deciding the legality and morality of induced abortion. Whether this is a valid criterion is essentially based on whether one believes that the fetus is human from the moment of conception or that it achieves humanity at some point during physical development. Those who oppose abortion on moral grounds believe that the fetus is human or potentially human and that destruction of the fetal body is tantamount to murder. Many others have equally strong beliefs that abortion is a woman's right.

The liberalization of abortion laws has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of abortions performed in physicians' offices, clinics, and hospitals. While this has diminished the occurrence of septic abortions performed at the hands of unscrupulous abortionists and has improved the possibility of safe and uneventful physical recovery from an induced abortion, the issue remains controversial and charged with emotion. The health care provider who strongly objects to abortion is legally and morally free to choose not to participate in the procedure and is advised to avoid situations involving responsibility for the care of patients who have chosen abortion as a means of ending an unwanted pregnancy. Women who have made a decision to have an abortion need a safe, non-judgmental environment to recover physically and emotionally from the procedure.

The patient should know that other alternatives are available and that an abortion after 20 weeks is inadvisable for medical and other reasons. Preabortion counseling in the psychological, religious, and legal aspects of abortion should be readily available, with immediate referral to the proper resources. Although delay in carrying out the procedure may increase the risk of complications, no patient should be encouraged to go through with an abortion until she has had time and sufficient counseling to reach a rational decision. During postabortion counseling there should be a discussion of various methods of contraception. The client will need information on the advantages and disadvantages of each method, her responsibilities in preventing future unwanted pregnancies, and available help in initiating and following through on a program of effective contraception. She should be informed that women who have had two or more abortions run a greatly increased risk of miscarriage or spontaneous abortion in the first six months of subsequent pregnancies.
Patient Care. The type of care required and the complications to be avoided in abortion will depend on the stage of pregnancy at the time of termination and whether the abortion is spontaneous, is induced under sterile conditions, or is performed by an unskilled abortionist or the patient herself. Many women who choose to have an abortion are anxious and confused about the physical and psychological outcomes of the procedure. Therefore both pre- and postabortion counseling are recommended.

In cases of spontaneous or habitual abortion, patient care is directed toward emotional support of the patient and acceptance of her feelings of bitterness, grief, guilt, relief, and other emotions associated with the loss of the fetus. The patient should be able to express her feelings in an open, nonjudgmental, and nonthreatening environment.
complete abortion complete expulsion of all the products of conception.
criminal abortion termination of pregnancy by illegal interference, usually undertaken when legal induced abortion is unavailable. The most frequent complications are severe hemorrhage and sepsis, and for those who delay seeking medical attention the mortality rate is high.
early abortion abortion within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.
elective abortion induced abortion done at the request of the mother for other than therapeutic reasons.
habitual abortion spontaneous abortion in three or more consecutive pregnancies before the 20th week of gestation.
incomplete abortion abortion in which parts of the products of conception are retained in the uterus.
induced abortion abortion brought on intentionally by medication or instrumentation.
inevitable abortion a condition in which vaginal bleeding has been profuse, membranes usually show gross rupturing, the cervix has become dilated, and abortion is almost certain.
infected abortion abortion associated with infection of the genital tract from retained material, with a febrile reaction.
missed abortion retention of dead products of conception in utero for more than 8 weeks.
septic abortion abortion associated with serious infection of the products of conception and endometrial lining of the uterus, leading to generalized infection; it is usually caused by pathogenic organisms of the bowel or vagina.
spontaneous abortion termination of pregnancy before the fetus is sufficiently developed to survive; called miscarriage by laypersons. In the United States this definition is confined to the termination of pregnancy before 20 weeks' gestation (based upon the date of the first day of the last normal menses). Chromosomal abnormalities cause at least half of spontaneous abortions.
therapeutic abortion abortion induced legally by a qualified physician to safeguard the health of the mother.
threatened abortion a condition in which vaginal bleeding is less than in inevitable abortion, the cervix is not dilated, and abortion may or may not occur; this is the presumed diagnosis when any bloody vaginal discharge or vaginal bleeding occurs in the first half of pregnancy.

spon·ta·ne·ous a·bor·tion

abortion that has not been artificially induced.Synonym(s): miscarriage

spontaneous abortion

spontaneous abortion

Any unexpected pregnancy loss (miscarriage) during the first twenty weeks of gestation.

spontaneous abortion

Miscarriage, natural abortion Obstetrics A pregnancy ending in spontaneous loss of the embryo or fetus before 20 wks of gestation. See Abortion.

spon·ta·ne·ous a·bor·tion

(spon-tā'nē-ŭs ă-bōr'shŭn)
Abortion that has not been artificially induced.

spontaneous abortion

Premature and unexpected expulsion of the fetus from the womb for no immediately obvious reason. See also ABORTION.

Patient discussion about spontaneous abortion

Q. I had a miscarriage 2 years back when I was obese.Can anyone guide? I had a miscarriage 2 years back when I was obese. But I am trying again after getting in to good shape and I am eating cautiously to ensure balanced diet. Will there by any problem in my delivery because of miscarriage? Can anyone guide?

A. It is quite a normal doubt because you already had miscarriage. The most important thing that you may have to do is to reveal your past history to your Gynecologist and seek their suggestion and assistance. I heard cases where people consume baby aspirin to prevent miscarriages. But I am not sure of how that medicine works with miscarriages. Be confident and follow good diet as you have been doing now and go for regular check-ups and try to know more information to better take care of you. I am strongly against self-medication and I shall suggest you to take meds with doctors advice.

More discussions about spontaneous abortion
References in periodicals archive ?
To minimize the possible mistakes arising from forgetting, midwives met women in study group within two weeks following spontaneous abortion. The data of the study were collected after obtaining necessary permissions from the Public Health Directorate and women's verbal consents.
BALB/c mice experiment result showed that repeated early medical abortions led to spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss during subsequent pregnancies.
We looked at all the data of pregnant patients who admitted to University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between January 2012 and January 2017.A total of 570 participants, 325 diagnosed with spontaneous abortion (1.
One of the factors associated with the severity of abortion complications was whether the abortion was reported as having been induced: Women who reported having had an induced abortion were more likely than those who reported having had a spontaneous abortion to experience severe or moderate complications rather than mild or no complications.
However, these data do call for continued surveillance for the safety of each seasonal formulation of influenza vaccine, and for further exploration of the association between repeat vaccination and spontaneous abortion in other datasets.
I will also eagerly await the results of another CDC-sponsored investigation designed to evaluate the risks of spontaneous abortion in women who were vaccinated consecutively in the 2012-2013, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015 influenza seasons.
Of the 2738 women examined in the Ataturk Research and Training Hospital Emergency Department of Katip Celebi University (Izmir, Turkey) between January 01, 2012, and June 30, 2012, data were retrospectively collected from 171 normal, healthy pregnant women in the first 20 weeks of gestation and 200 women with spontaneous abortion. Only women with singleton pregnancies were included.
Significant differences in age, education level, and HR-HPV were observed in the spontaneous abortion group relative to the nonabortion group.
Studies have shown that Listeria monocytogenes can cause spontaneous abortion.[sup][10] L.
Adverse events indicated in patient's obstetric history like spontaneous abortion significantly increases the risk of subsequent pregnancy loss.26 On review of patient's obstetric history 32.26% of women were found to have a history of previous miscarriage.
Avoid prescribing oral fluconazole in early pregnancy because it is associated with a higher rate of spontaneous abortion than is topical azole therapy.
A similar concern has been observed regarding the treatment of women who experience spontaneous abortion. In hospitals owned or operated by Roman Catholic authorities, religious doctrines may be applied to prevent uterine evacuation in the event of threatened spontaneous abortion while a fetal heartbeat is detected.