Cooper, a 1912 graduate of the International College of Chiropractic Spondylotherapy
, Detroit, Michigan, was the first of four generations of chiropractors to practice there.
In 1910 Abrams [Albert Abrams (1863-1924)] was a doctor, who used "electricity therapy" he called ERA (Electronic Reactions of Abrams or: Radionics), published a book on a "medical technique" he called Spondylotherapy
. It was his version of Chiropractic and Osteopathy, which were criticized by the medical establishment at the time.