Molecular detection of Spiroplasma
apis and Spiroplasma
melliferum in bees.
Asymmetrical interactions between Wolbachia and Spiroplasma
endosymbionts coexisting in the same insect host.
Flow cytometry studies on the Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes sub-populations and immune responses to novel pathogen spiroplasma
Assessment of genetic diversity in Spiroplasma
citri by RAPD, rep-PCR and bacteriophage primers.
The main bacterial phytopathogens known to us are Agrobacterium, Burkholderia cepacia, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Pectobacterium athrosepticum, Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas axonopodis, Xanthomonas campestris, Xanthomonas oryzae, Xylella fastidiosa, Clavibacter michiganensis, Leifsonia xyli, Spiroplasma
kunkelii and Phytoplasma groups, and Coryneform (Robert, 2011).
Entomologists Ryan Schwarz and Jay Evans at the ARS Bee Research Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland, and their colleagues have shown that two species of bacteria, Spiroplasma
melliferum and S.
Sensitivity to digitonin was performed to differentiate the sterol requiring Mollicutes (Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Entomoplasma, Spiroplasma
, and Anaeroplasma) from the non-sterol-requiring Mollicutes (Mesoplasma, Acholeplasma, and Asteroleplasma).
Other bacteria found included Bacillus muralis, a novel species isolated for the first time from mural paintings located in Spain (necropolis of Carmona) and Germany (church of Greene-Kreiensen) ; Bacillus spp., spore-forming bacteria found in a wide range of habitats; and Spiroplasma
, shown to be associated with arthropods .
For example, Spiroplasma
can convey increased resistance to nematode infections in Drosophila flies , and secondary symbionts in aphids can confer resistance to parasitic wasps .