Dekeyser, Xavier 1976 "Some considerations on voicing with special reference to spirants
in English and Dutch.
tan be explained by the process of unvoicing of final voiced fricatives, which took place shortly after the voicing of medial spirants
In other words, the spirant
appears after vowels and after [r v y] only.
A "semivowel" would refer to those consonants we classify today as spirants
(fricatives) and liquids.
(9) In Old, Middle, and Early Modern Irish, consonants are divided into groups for rhyming purposes, based on their phonemic properties (stops versus spirants
and voiced versus voiceless, for example).
Nasals Voiced m Lateral Voiced Spirants
Voiceless f Voiced Bilabial Alveolar Apicopalatal Place of Articulation Lower Alveolar teeth ridge Manner of Articulation Tongue tip Stops Voiceless Unasp.
A linguist, for example, might note the effective placing of dental and palatal spirants
in these famous lines from Verlaine:
include sibilants /s/ and /s/ along with affricates /z/ [ts?] and possibly Id [to].
The three voiced stops /b, d, g/ are in complementary distribution (i.e., different allophones of the same phoneme that cannot occur in the same linguistic environment) with the spirants
[[beta]] (voiced bilabial), [[eth]], and [[??]] (voiced velar), respectively.
Jonathan Owens revisits the dental spirants
and uses Neo-Arabic evidence to argue that the early Aramaic reflex of Proto-Semitic [eth] always varied synchronically between [d] and [z], as it does in spoken Arabic today, against the inherited theory that in Aramaic two changes occurred in sequence [eth] > [d] and [d] > [z] (among other explanations).
The letters <b>, <g>, <k>, (p), and <t> may represent either stops or spirants
; <b> may indicate /b/, /v/, or /w/; <g> indicates both /g/ and /B/; <k> indicates both /k/ and / [chi]/ (p) indicates both /p/ and /f/; and <t> indicates both /t/ and /u/.