spiral fracture


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fracture

 [frak´chur]
1. the breaking of a part, especially a bone.
2. a break in continuity of bone; it may be caused by trauma, twisting due to muscle spasm or indirect loss of leverage, or by disease that results in osteopenia. See illustration.
Types of fractures.
Treatment. Immediate first aid consists of splinting the bone with no attempt to reduce the fracture; it should be splinted “as it lies,” which means supporting it in such a way that the injured part will remain steady and will resist jarring if the victim is moved. Later it will be treated by reduction, which means that the broken ends are pulled into alignment and the continuity of the bone is established so that healing can take place. Fracture healing is truly a process of regeneration. Fractures heal with normal bone, not with scar tissue. Closed reduction is performed by manual manipulation of the fractured bone so that the fragments are brought into proper alignment; no surgical incision is made. Open fractures are highly contaminated and must be débrided and copiously irrigated in the operating room. A fracture may also require internal fixation with pins, nails, metal plates, or screws to stabilize the alignment. Once closed reduction is accomplished, the bone is immobilized by application of a cast or by an apparatus exerting traction on the distal end of the bone.
avulsion fracture separation of a small fragment of bone cortex at the site of attachment of a ligament or tendon.
Barton's fracture fracture of the distal end of the radius into the wrist joint.
Bennett's fracture fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone, running into the carpometacarpal joint, complicated by subluxation.
blow-out fracture fracture of the orbital floor caused by a sudden increase of intraorbital pressure due to traumatic force; the orbital contents herniate into the maxillary sinus so that the inferior rectus or inferior oblique muscle may become incarcerated in the fracture site, producing diplopia on looking up.
closed fracture one that does not produce an open wound, as opposed to an open fracture. See illustration. Called also simple fracture.
Colles' fracture fracture of the lower end of the radius, the distal fragment being displaced backward.
comminuted fracture one in which the bone is splintered or crushed, with three or more fragments. See illustration.
complete fracture one involving the entire cross section of the bone.
compound fracture open fracture.
compression fracture one produced by compression.
depressed fracture (depressed skull fracture) fracture of the skull in which a fragment is depressed.
direct fracture one at the site of injury.
dislocation fracture fracture of a bone near an articulation with concomitant dislocation of that joint.
double fracture fracture of a bone in two places.
Dupuytren's fracture Pott's fracture.
Duverney's fracture fracture of the ilium just below the anterior inferior spine.
fissure fracture a crack extending from a surface into, but not through, a long bone.
greenstick fracture one in which one side of a bone is broken and the other is bent, most commonly seen in children. See illustration.
impacted fracture fracture in which one fragment is firmly driven into the other.
incomplete fracture one that does not involve the complete cross section of the bone.
indirect fracture one distant from the site of injury.
interperiosteal fracture greenstick fracture.
intrauterine fracture fracture of a fetal bone incurred in utero.
Jefferson's fracture fracture of the atlas (first cervical vertebra).
lead pipe fracture one in which the bone cortex is slightly compressed and bulged on one side with a slight crack on the other side of the bone.
Le Fort fracture bilateral horizontal fracture of the maxilla. Le Fort fractures are classified as follows: Le Fort I fracture, a horizontal segmented fracture of the alveolar process of the maxilla, in which the teeth are usually contained in the detached portion of the bone. Le Fort II fracture, unilateral or bilateral fracture of the maxilla, in which the body of the maxilla is separated from the facial skeleton and the separated portion is pyramidal in shape; the fracture may extend through the body of the maxilla down the midline of the hard palate, through the floor of the orbit, and into the nasal cavity. Le Fort III fracture, a fracture in which the entire maxilla and one or more facial bones are completely separated from the craniofacial skeleton; such fractures are almost always accompanied by multiple fractures of the facial bones.
longitudinal fracture one extending along the length of the bone. See illustration.
Monteggia's fracture one in the proximal half of the shaft of the ulna, with dislocation of the head of the radius.
oblique fracture one in which the break extends in an oblique direction. See illustration.
open fracture one in which a wound through the adjacent or overlying soft tissue communicates with the outside of the body; this must be considered a surgical emergency. The compounding may come from within (by a bone protruding through the skin) or from without (e.g., by a bullet wound communicating with the bone). See illustration. Called also compound fracture.
pathologic fracture one due to weakening of the bone structure by pathologic processes such as neoplasia or osteomalacia; see illustration. Called also spontaneous fracture.
pertrochanteric fracture fracture of the femur passing through the greater trochanter.
ping-pong fracture an indented fracture of the skull, resembling the indentation that can be produced with the finger in a ping-pong ball; when elevated it resumes and retains its normal position.
Pott's fracture fracture of lower part of the fibula with serious injury of the lower tibial articulation.
simple fracture closed fracture.
Smith's fracture reversed Colles' fracture.
spiral fracture one in which the bone has been twisted and the fracture line resembles a spiral. See illustration.
spontaneous fracture pathologic fracture.
sprain fracture the separation of a tendon from its insertion, taking with it a piece of bone.
stellate fracture one with a central point of injury, from which radiate numerous fissures.
Stieda's fracture a fracture of the internal condyle of the femur.
transcervical fracture one through the neck of the femur.
transverse fracture one at right angles to the axis of the bone. See illustration.
trophic fracture one due to a nutritional (trophic) disturbance.

spi·ral frac·ture

a fracture, the line of which is helical in the bone; usually results from a twisting injury.

spiral fracture

A fracture of a long bone characterised by a spiral fracture line resulting from a torsional traumatic force.

spi·ral frac·ture

(spī'răl frak'shŭr)
A break that creates a helical line in bone.
References in periodicals archive ?
The flake platform was a broken spiral fracture plane indicating that the flake was struck after the bone was initially broken.
Captions: FIGURE 1: (a) Radiograph of the right upper extremity with obliquely orientated lucency through the distal humeral metadiaphysis with associated soft tissue swelling that is consistent with a nondisplaced spiral fracture. (b) Follow-up radiograph of right upper extremity with ongoing interval healing of the right spiral fracture of the middistal diaphysis of the right humerus with surrounding periosteal new bone/callus formation.
Gavin Henson suffered a spiral fracture to his leg - where the bone twists before breaking - when he was 17 and spent a year out of the game.
Fosamax can also cause a sudden spiral fracture in a patient's shinbone, as commonplace microfractures accumulate and fail to heal due to the limited blood flow caused by Fosamax.
The 33-year-old suffered a spiral fracture of his left fibula during the battling 3-2 win over Luton on Easter Monday.
Second rower Parker is facing a four to six week lay-off with a spiral fracture to his hand and prop Wood will be out for two to three weeks with knee medial ligament damage.
Lennox had a spiral fracture to one leg and cuts to his paw.
The article also excluded the injured man, Richard Sawyer, a locomotive engineer who suffered a dislocated ankle and a spiral fracture to the fibula--and missed months of work as a result--after he slid into a base that was supposed to break away on impact but didn't because the city hadn't followed the manufacturer's instructions for maintaining these fixtures properly, according to Kevin Garrison, Sawyer's lawyer.
Luckily, the break was in a spiral fracture and I didn't need any plates or screws, so they just slapped a cast on my leg, gave me some Motrin, and I was on my way.
Type II: Two-part fractures: (A) transverse fracture; (B) spiral fracture with the lesser trochanter attached to the proximal fragment; (C) spiral fracture with the lesser trochanter attached to the distal fragment.
I was introduced to Joshua late one weekend night by the emergency room doctor who called to let me know that this young boy had a "spiral fracture" of his femur (the large bone of the leg) and that child abuse was strongly suspected.
Mary Smith, who lives in Co Fermanagh, is left forever with a painful spiral fracture, unable to return to the work she loved.