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Related to spiral canal of the cochlea: cochlear duct, cochlear nerve


a relatively narrow tubular passage or channel.
adductor canal Hunter's canal.
Alcock's canal a tunnel formed by a splitting of the obturator fascia, which encloses the pudendal vessels and nerve.
alimentary canal see alimentary canal.
anal canal the terminal portion of the alimentary canal, from the rectum to the anus.
atrioventricular canal the common canal connecting the primordial atrium and ventricle; it sometimes persists as a congenital anomaly.
birth canal the canal through which the fetus passes in birth.
carotid canal one in the pars petrosa of the temporal bone, transmitting the internal carotid artery to the cranial cavity.
cervical canal the part of the uterine cavity lying within the cervix.
condylar canal an occasional opening in the condylar fossa for transmission of the transverse sinus; called also posterior condyloid foramen.
canal of Corti a space between the outer and inner rods of Corti.
femoral canal the cone-shaped medial part of the femoral sheath lateral to the base of Gimbernat's ligament.
haversian canal any of the anastomosing channels of the haversian system in compact bone, containing blood and lymph vessels, and nerves.
Hunter's canal a fascial tunnel in the middle third of the medial part of the thigh, containing the femoral vessels and saphenous nerve. Called also adductor canal.
hypoglossal canal an opening in the occipital bone, transmitting the hypoglossal nerve and a branch of the posterior meningeal artery; called also anterior condyloid foramen.
infraorbital canal a small canal running obliquely through the floor of the orbit, transmitting the infraorbital vessels and nerve.
inguinal canal the oblique passage in the lower anterior abdominal wall on either side, through which passes the round ligament of the uterus in the female, and the spermatic cord in the male.
medullary canal
optic canal a passage for the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery at the apex of the orbit; called also optic foramen.
pulp canal root canal.
root canal that part of the pulp cavity extending from the pulp chamber to the apical foramen. Called also pulp canal.
sacral canal the continuation of the spinal canal through the sacrum.
Schlemm's canal venous sinus of sclera.
semicircular c's see semicircular canals.
spinal canal (vertebral canal) the canal formed by the series of vertebral foramina together, enclosing the spinal cord and meninges.
Volkmann's c's canals communicating with the haversian canals, for passage of blood vessels through bone.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


(kă-nal'), [TA]
A duct or channel; a tubular structure.
See also: channel, duct.
Synonym(s): canalis [TA]
[L. canalis]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


Anatomy A tube, duct, or passageway.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


A furrow or conduit.

Vox populi
A narrow, usually manmade body of water which provides a route of maritime transportation.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.


(kă-nal') [TA]
A duct or channel; a tubular structure.
Synonym(s): canalis [TA] .
[L. canalis]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


(ka-nal') [L. canalis, channel]
A narrow tube, channel, tunnel, or passageway. See: duct; foramen; groove; space

adductor canal

A connective tissue channel, through which the femoral artery, femoral vein, and saphenous nerve pass inside the lower half of the inner thigh between the femoral triangle and the popliteal fossa. The channel is surrounded by the vastus medialis, adductor longus, and adductor magnus muscles, and it is covered by the sartorius muscle.
Synonym: Hunter canal; subsartorial canal

Alcock canal

Pudendal canal. See: Alcock canal

alimentary canal

The digestive tract from the mouth through the anus.

alveolar canal

In the skull, any of the two or three channels leading from small holes along the middle of the infratemporal surface of the maxilla. These channels transmit the posterior superior alveolar blood vessels and nerves, which supply the upper molars and their surrounding gums.
Synonym: superior alveolar canal ; maxillary canal
Enlarge picture

anal canal

The 4 cm long terminal section of the large intestine, beginning where the rectum passes downward and forward through the pelvic diaphragm and ending in the anus. The entire length of the anal canal is surrounded by sphincter muscles, and the canal remains closed except during defecation and passage of flatus.
See: illustration

Arnold canal

See: Arnold, Friedrich

atrioventricular canal

In the embryo, the segment of the heart tube between the developing atria and ventricles. This segment will eventually give rise to the mitral and tricuspid valves and to portions of the interatrial and interventricular septa.

auditory canal

Either the external auditory canal or the internal auditory canal.
See: external auditory canal ; internal auditory canal

birth canal

The passageway comprising the cervix, vagina, and vulva, through which the products of conception, including the fetus, pass during labor and birth.

bony semicircular canal

Any of several canals located in the bony labyrinth of the internal ear and enclosing the three semicircular ducts (superior, posterior, and lateral) that open into the vestibule. They are enclosed within the petrous portion of the temporal bone.

carotid canal

The channel followed by the internal carotid artery (and its accompanying sympathetic nerves) as it passes through the bone of the skull. The oval external opening is in the petrous portion of the temporal bone just in front of the opening to the jugular canal. The carotid canal runs forward until, passing over the foramen lacerum, it turns up and opens into the middle cranial fossa along a groove at the base of the sella turcica.

central canal of bone

The Haversian canal of an osteon.

central canal of neural tube

The central lumen of the neural tube of the embryo. It is lined by the foot-processes of radial glial cells. Later, the central canal of the neural tube will become the ependyma-lined ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the medulla of the brainstem.

central canal of spinal cord

The remnant of the lumen of the neural tube. Largely obliterated in the adult spinal cord.

cervical canal

The passageway through the center of the cervix.

Cloquet canal

See: Cloquet canal

cochlear canal

Within the petrous portion of the temporal bone of the skull, the spiral space forming the outer wall the cochlea. This canal is a short spiral bony tube. Three fluid-filled, membranous tubes spiral fill the cochlear canal: the cochlear duct, containing the auditory receptor cells (the organ of Corti), is sandwiched between the scala vestibuli above and the scala tympani below. The cochlear canal is one segment of an interconnected series of bone cavities called the bony (osseus) labyrinth, which encloses the vestibulo-cochlear sensory apparatus of the inner ear. See: cochlea

condylar canal

A hole in the occipital bone of the skull for passage of the emissary vein from the transverse sinus. It opens anterior to the occipital condyle.

canal of Corti

See: Corti

craniopharyngeal canal

In the embryo, a temporary tubular space in the cartilage of the base of the sphenoid bone, enclosing the developing pituitary gland.

dental canal

Any of the channels in the maxilla (alveolar canals) or mandible (mandibular canals) through which pass the nerves and blood vessels to the teeth and the surrounding gums.

Dorello canal

See: Dorello canal

ethmoidal canal

Either of two grooves running transversely across the lateral mass of the ethmoid bone to the cribriform plate and lying between the ethmoid and frontal bones. The anterior ethmoidal canal transmits the anterior ethmoidal vessels and the nasociliary nerve; the posterior ethmoidal canal transmits the posterior ethmoidal vessels and nerve.

external auditory canal

The open, tubular passageway from the pinna (auricle) of the ear to the tympanic membrane (ear drum). It is lined by thin, sensitive skin, which continues as the outer covering of the tympanic membrane. Its outer edge is a channel in the temporal bone of the skull. The cartilage inside the pinna extends as a middle layer between the skin and the bone in the first third of the canal.
See: external auditory meatus

facial canal

The tunnel followed by the facial nerve through the temporal bone. Inside the skull, the facial canal begins in the internal auditory canal; outside the skull, it ends at the stylomastoid foramen. Within the bone, the canal makes two bends as it bypasses the inner ear. The first bend houses the geniculate ganglion, which sends sensory axons toward the brainstem as the intermediate component of the facial nerve. Near the second bend, the facial nerve gives off a branch to the stapedius muscle. In the final segment of the canal, the facial nerve gives off the chorda tympani nerve; thus, only motor axons remain as the facial nerve exits the canal.

fallopian canal

A canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The facial nerve passes through it.
Synonym: aqueductus Fallopii

femoral canal

1. The medullary (central) canal inside the shaft of the femoral bone.
2. The most medial compartment of the femoral sheath. A femoral hernia is a bulge of intestine that has been pushed down into the femoral canal through its upper opening, the femoral ring.

gastric canal

A longitudinal groove extending from the esophagus to the pylorus on the inner surface of the stomach following the lesser curvature.

Guyon canal

See: Guyon canal

Haversian canal

In compact bone, tiny channels in the center of concentric cylinders of mineralized tissue. Nerves and blood vessels run through these channels, all of which interconnect. Each Haversian canal is the center of an osteon. See: bone; Havers, Clopton

Huguier canal

See: Huguier canal

Hunter canal

Adductor canal. See: Hunter canal

Huschke canal

See: Huschke, Emil

hyaloid canal

Canalis hyaloideus; a canal in the vitreous body of the eye extending from the optic papilla to the central posterior surface of the lens. It serves as a lymph channel. In the fetus the canal contains the hyaloid artery. This normally disappears 6 weeks before birth.

hypoglossal canal

A hole in the skull, just above the foramen magnum in the occipital bone, through which the hypoglossal nerve and a branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery pass.
Synonym: anterior condyloid foramen

inferior alveolar canal

Mandibular canal.

infraorbital canal

An anterior-posterior bony canal or groove in the floor of the orbit. The infraorbital artery and nerve run in this canal, which opens anteriorly as the infraorbital foramen.
Enlarge picture

inguinal canal

A tube made of the transversalis fascia and the aponeuroses of the abdominal wall muscles just above the inguinal ligament. The inguinal canal is a cylindrical passageway 4 cm long from the retroperitoneal space to the subcutaneous fascia. It begins at the deep (internal) inguinal ring inside the abdominal wall, approx. halfway between the anterior superior spine of the iliac bone and the pubic symphysis, 0.50 in (1.25 cm) above the inguinal ligament. It continues downward and toward the midline, and it ends at the superficial (external) inguinal ring under the skin at the pubic crest. The inguinal canal contains an outpouching of the peritoneum, blood and lymph vessels, and the ilioinguinal nerve. In males, it contains the spermatic cord; in females, it contains the round ligament of the uterus.

interdental canal

Hirschfeld canal.

internal auditory canal

The tunnel in the petrous portion of the temporal bone through which the vestibulocochlear and facial nerves exit the cranial cavity.
Synonym: meatus acusticus internus

intestinal canal

The alimentary canal from the stomach to the anus.

lacrimal canal

Nasolacrimal canal.

canal of Lambert

Any of several bronchoalveolar communications in the lung. These may help to prevent atelectasis.

mandibular canal

The channel inside the body of the mandible through which the inferior alveolar blood vessels and nerve pass to supply the lower teeth and gums. Synonym: inferior alveolar canal

mandibular incisive canal

The final segment of the mandibular canal, containing the nerves and blood vessels for the lower incisors and surrounding gums.

maxillary canal

Alveolar canal.

maxillary incisive canal

One of the two channels connecting the incisive fossa (incisive foramen), in the palate behind the upper incisors, and the nasal floor. It contains the nasal terminations of the greater palatine artery and nasopalatine nerve.

medullary canal

The marrow cavity of long bones.

membranous semicircular canal

A semicircular duct.
See: semicircular duct

nasolacrimal canal

A small bony passageway in the skull inside the medial wall of the orbit between the lacrimal bone and the maxilla. Its top opens into the nasolacrimal fossa, a bony depression in lower medial corner of the front of the orbit. Its bottom opens into the nasal cavity under the inferior nasal concha. It contains the membranous nasolacrimal duct, which drains tears from the eye. Synonym: lacrimal canal

neurenteric canal

A temporary canal in the vertebrate embryo between the neural and intestinal tubes. It is the temporary communication between cavities of the yolk sac and the amnion.

Nuck canal

See: Nuck canal

nutrient canal

In bone, a tiny tubular space filled by vessels and nerves running to and from the osteons and the other basic metabolic and growth units.
See: bone

obturator canal

An opening in the obturator membrane of the hip bone that transmits the obturator vessels and nerve.

optic canal

In the skull, a roughly spherical opening through the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone connecting the middle cranial fossa and the superior-medial edge of the back of the orbit. The optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery pass through the optic canal.
Synonym: optic foramen

greater palatine canal

In the skull, a thin vertical channel between the nasal surface of the maxillary bone and the perpendicular plate of the palatine bone that contains the greater (anterior) and lesser (middle and posterior) palatine nerves and the greater and lesser palatine vessels.

pericardioperitoneal canal

Pleuroperitoneal canal.

Petit canal

See: Petit, François Pourfour du

pharyngeal canal

A canal between the sphenoid and palatine bones that transmits branches of the sphenopalatine vessels.

pleuroperitoneal canal

A tubular space extending ventrally and laterally from the coelom inside each half of the embryo and destined to form the pleural cavity for the lung.
Synonym: pericardioperitoneal canal

portal canal

The connective tissue (a continuation of Glisson capsule) and its contained vessels (interlobular branches of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct and lymphatic vessel) located between adjoining liver lobules.

pterygoid canal

In the skull, a small horizontal channel beginning inside the canal of the foramen lacerum (in the middle cranial fossa), passing through the root of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, and opening into the pterygopalatine fossa behind and below the medial wall of the orbit. It transmits the pterygoid nerve and vessels to the pterygopalatine ganglion.
Synonym: vidian canal

pterygopalatine canal

Canalis palatinus major, a canal between the maxillary and palatine bones that transmits the descending palatine nerves and artery.

pudendal canal

A tunnel inside the obturator fascia along the lower pelvic surface of the internal obturator muscle and running along the inner lower edge of the ramus of the ischium. It contains the pudendal nerve and vessels.
Synonym: Alcock canal

pulp canal

Root canal (1).

pyloric canal

The cavity inside constricted region of the pyloric segment of the stomach that opens through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum.

Rivinus canal

See: Rivinus, August Quirinus

root canal

1. The channel inside the tooth that extends from the pulp chamber to the apical foramen. It contains arteries, veins, lymphatic vessels, and sensory nerve endings. Synonym: pulp canal
2. Colloquially, the procedure for preserving a tooth by removing its diseased pulp cavity.

sacral canal

The continuation of the vertebral canal into the sacrum.

canal of Schlemm

See: canal of Schlemm

semicircular canal

One of the three perpendicular tubular hollows, each forming two-thirds of a circle, that extend from the vestibule of the labyrinth in the inner ear. The semicircular canals are the bony shells that contain the similarly shaped semicircular ducts, membranous sensory organs that detect the angular acceleration and the orientation of the head.

spinal canal

Vertebral canal.

spiral canal of the cochlea

Cochlear spiral canal.

spiral canal of the modiolus

Canalis spiralis modioli; a series of irregular spaces that follow the course of the attached margin of the osseous spiral lamina to the modiolus. They transmit filaments of the cochlear nerve and blood vessels. The spiral ganglion lies in the spiral canal.

subsartorial canal

Adductor canal.

superior alveolar canal

Alveolar canal.

uterine canal

The cavity of the uterus.

uterocervical canal

The cavity of the cervix of the uterus.

uterovaginal canal

The combined cavities of the uterus and vagina.

vaginal canal

The cavity of the vagina. The vaginal walls can expand but are normally in contact with each other; thus, this cavity is a potential space.

vertebral canal

The continuous channel through the central foramina in the vertebrae, which contains the spinal cord and the spinal nerve roots in their meningeal coverings.
Synonym: spinal canal

vidian canal

Pterygoid canal.

Volkmann canals

See: Volkmann canals
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners


A tubular channel which allows the passage of air, food, blood, excretions, secretions, or anatomical structures such as nerves or blood vessels.
Cloquet's canal See hyaloid canal.
Hannover's canal A space about the equator of the crystalline lens made up between the anterior and posterior parts of the zonule of Zinn and containing aqueous humour and zonular fibres (Fig. C1).
hyaloid canal A channel in the vitreous humour, running from the optic disc to the crystalline lens. In fetal life this canal contains the hyaloid artery, which nourishes the lens, but it usually disappears prior to birth. Syn. central canal; Cloquet's canal; Stilling's canal. See hyaloid remnant.
infraorbital canal A channel beginning at the infraorbital groove in the floor of the orbit and ending at the infraorbital foramen of the maxillary bone opening onto the face below the inferior orbital margin. It is a channel for the infraorbital artery and the infraorbital nerve.
nasolacrimal canal See Table O4.
optic canal A canal leading from the middle cranial fossa to the apex of the orbit in the small wing of the sphenoid bone through which pass the optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery. Syn. optic foramen. See Table O4.
canal of Petit A space between the posterior fibres of the zonule of Zinn and the anterior surface of the vitreous humour (Fig. C1).
Schlemm's canal A circular venous sinus located in the corneoscleral junction, anterior to the scleral spur and receiving aqueous humour from the anterior chamber and discharging into the aqueous and the anterior ciliary veins (Fig. C1). Syn. scleral sinus; sinus circularis iridis; sinus venosus sclerae; venous circle of Leber. See trabecular meshwork; scleral spur; aqueous vein.
Stilling's canal See hyaloid canal.
Fig. C1 Section diagram through the anterior portion of the eyeenlarge picture
Fig. C1 Section diagram through the anterior portion of the eye
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann


(kă-nal') [TA]
Duct or channel; tubular structure.
See also: channel, duct
[L. canalis]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012

Patient discussion about canal

Q. How much does a root canal hurt? I have to get a root canal for my bottom tooth. I was wondering how much they hurt. And do you have any suggestions that help distract from the pain? Thanks.

A. i did one about two years ago- even the injection wasn't too bad! didn't feel a thing. but after the anesthesia worn off it hurt. but then the dentist told me to take Advil or any other NSAID and it helped.

More discussions about canal
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