process length: The distance from the superior margin to the tip of the spinous
process (Bazaldua Cruz et al.).
(76,79) The histopathologic pattern is that of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK), in which the keratinocytes in the granular and spinous
layers display cytoplasmic vacuolation, reticular degeneration, coarse keratohyalin granules, and perinuclear eosinophilic inclusions (Figure 8, B).
The computerized photogrammetry protocol for measuring the angle of scoliosis may be difficult in individuals with a very high BMI, due to the difficulty in locating the spinous
processes by palpatory anatomy.
--angle of thoracic kyphosis: the angle formed by the apex of the thoracic kyphosis and the C7 and Th12 spinous
process bifurcation (SPB) of only the C3 and C4 vertebrae are used for this approach.
This surgical decompression procedure involves extensive dissection for detachment of the bilateral paravertebral muscles (PVMs) from the spinous
processes and the lamina.
Due to high echogenicity of the bone, structures beneath the spinous
process are not seen.
The therapist uses his pisiform to contact the client's lumbar spinous
process/lamina at the desired joint level, trapping the bone against his contact.
It is augmented by two woven Dacron ribbons, which are wrapped around the spinous
processes and fixed under tension.
One fraction consisted of basal and spinous
cells, one of granular cells, and the third fraction was stratum corneum.
The patient then underwent ASF with iliac crest autograft at the L1-2 disc space and posterior spine fusion with a spinous
Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed papillary structures presenting with hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, elongated retes showing a tendency to converge towards the center on a large and flat ground, and koilocytes in the spinous
layer and the lesion was determined to be consistent with verruca vulgaris (Figure 2).