fluid (floo'id) [L. fluidus, flowing]
A nonsolid, liquid, or gaseous substance. See: secretion
Fluid found in the fetal membrane that develops from the yolk sac.
See: amniocentesis; oligohydramnios; polyhydramnios
A clear fluid that surrounds the fetus in the amniotic sac. Its primary functions are to suspend and protect the growing fetus, allow freedom of movement, maintain even constant temperature, and aid normal development of the fetal lungs. Volume increases from about 50 ml at 12 gestational weeks to around 800 ml at 38 weeks. The fluid is constantly being circulated by the fetus swallowing fluid, urinating, and inhaling/exhaling fluid during fetal respiration. Samples of amniotic fluid may be collected by amniocentesis to identify fetal chromosomal abnormalities, state of health, and maturity. Synonym: liquor amnii
Clear, pale, straw-colored fluid occurring in ascites. The fluid is normally sterile; its specific gravity is normally 1.005 to 1.015; the cellular content is less than 250 white blood cells per cubic millimeter, and its protein content is low. Cancer, heart failure, liver failure, peritonitis, and tuberculosis may alter the amount or character of ascites.
A fluid found in one of the fluid compartments of the body. The principal fluid compartments are intracellular and extracellular. A much smaller segment, the transcellular, includes fluid in the tracheobronchial tree, the gastrointestinal tract, and the bladder; cerebrospinal fluid; and the aqueous humor of the eye. The chemical composition of fluids in the various compartments is carefully regulated. In a normal 154 lb (70 kg) adult human male, 60% of total body weight (i.e., 42 L) is water; in a normal adult female is 55% of total body weight is water (39 L). See: acid-base balance; fluid replacement; fluid balance
Bouin fluid See: Bouin fluid
FLOW OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID THROUGH THE BRAIN AND SPINAL COLUMN: Formation, circulation, and reabsorption of CSF
cerebrospinal fluid Abbreviation: CSF
The sodium-rich, potassium-poor tissue fluid of the brain and spinal cord. The fluid supplies nutrients and removes waste products; it is also a watery cushion that absorbs mechanical shock to the central nervous system. Synonym: spinal fluid
See: lumbar puncture
The fluid is formed by the choroid plexuses of the lateral and third ventricles. That of the lateral ventricles passes through the foramen of Monro to the third ventricle, and through the aqueduct of Sylvius to the fourth ventricle. There it may escape through the central foramen of Magendie or the lateral foramina of Luschke into the cisterna magna and to the cranial and spinal subarachnoid spaces. It is reabsorbed through the arachnoid villi into the blood in the cranial venous sinuses, and through the perineural lymph spaces of both the brain and the cord. See: illustration
The fluid is normally watery, clear, colorless, and almost entirely free of cells. The initial pressure of spinal fluid in a side-lying adult is about 100 to 180 mm of water. On average, the total protein is about 15 to 50 mg/dL, and the concentration of glucose is about twothirds the concentration of glucose in the patient's serum. Its pH, which is rarely measured clinically, is slightly more acidic than the pH of blood. Its concentration and alkaline reserve are similar to those of blood. It does not clot on standing. Turbidity suggests an excessively high number of cells in the fluid, typically white blood cells in infections such as meningitis or red blood cells in intracerebral hemorrhage.
CSF may appear red following a recent subarachnoid hemorrhage or when the lumbar puncture that obtained the CSF caused traumatic injury to the dura that surround the fluid. Centrifugation of the fluid can distinguish between these two sources of blood in the spinal fluid: the supernatant is usually stained yellow (xanthochromic) only when there has been a recent subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Many conditions may cause increases in CSF total protein: infections, such as acute or chronic meningitis; multiple sclerosis (when oligoclonal protein bands are present); Guillain-Barré syndrome; and chronic medical conditions like cirrhosis and hypothyroidism (when diffuse hypergammaglobulinemia is present). The concentration of glucose in the CSF rises in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and drops precipitously in meningitis, sarcoidosis, and some other illnesses. Malignant cells in the CSF, demonstrated after centrifugation or filtering, are hallmarks of carcinomatous meningitis.
The CSF is normally sterile. Meningococci, streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, and gram-negative bacilli are recovered from the CSF only in cases of meningitis. Syphilitic meningitis is usually diagnosed with serological tests for the disease, such as the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, or the fluorescent treponemal antibody test. Cryptococcal infection of the CSF may be demonstrated by India ink preparations, or by latex agglutination tests. Tuberculous meningitis may sometimes be diagnosed with Ziehl-Neelsen stains, but more often this is done with cultures. These last three infections (syphilis, cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis) are much more common in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) than in the general population.
crevicular fluidGingival sulcular fluid.
The body fluid outside of cells. It includes the interstitial, intravascular, and cerebrospinal fluids. Water is the common solvent of all these fluids. Approximately 36% of an adult's body fluids and 47% of and infant's body fluids are extracellular.
extravascular fluidInterstitial fluid.
The liquid rich in heparin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, anti-müullerian hormone, defensins, and other chemicals that surrounds developing oocytes as they mature in the ovary.
gingival fluidGingival sulcular fluid.
gingival sulcular fluid Abbreviation: GSF
In dentistry, the fluid that seeps through the gingival epithelium. It increases with gingival inflammation. Cellular elements within GSF include bacteria, desquamated epithelial cells, and leukocytes. Electrolytes and some organic compounds are also present. Synonym: crevicular fluid; gingival fluid
Water and dissolved substances inside tissues but outside of cells and vessels. Interstitial fluid is largely the ultrafiltrate of arterial blood, having been pushed through capillary walls by hydrostatic force; therefore it has a salt concentration similar to blood serum. Normally, approximately 29% of an adult's body fluids and 40% of an infant's body fluids are interstitial fluids. Excess interstitial fluid is returned to the circulation by the lymphatics. An accumulation of excess interstitial fluid is called edema. Synonym: extravascular fluid
intracellular fluid Abbreviation: ICF
The potassium-rich, sodium-poor watery solution inside cells. Approx. 55 to75% of total body water is intracellular.
Fluid within the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. Synonym: aqueous humor
That portion of the total body fluid contained within blood and lymphatic vessels.
The clear straw-colored serous fluid secreted by the cells of the peritoneum. The few milliliters present in the peritoneal cavity moisten the surfaces of the two peritoneal layers and allow them to glide over each other as the intestinal tract changes shape during the process of digestion and absorption. In certain disease states (such as right-sided heart failure, cirrhosis, or ovarian malignancy) the amount of peritoneal fluid is increased. See: ascites
Fluid secreted by serous membranes in the pleurae that reduces friction during respiratory movements of the lungs. When excessive pleural fluid is secreted and not absorbed, a pleural effusion accumulates.
Scarpa fluid See: Scarpa, Antonio
Fluid secreted by serous membranes that reduces friction in the serous cavities (pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal).
spinal fluidCerebrospinal fluid
Clear viscid lubricating fluid of the joint, bursae, and tendon sheaths, secreted by the synovial membrane of a joint. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and electrolytes. Synonym: synovia See: synovial joint
The extracellular fluid that lubricates the potential spaces of the body, such as the pleura and pericardium.
Zenker fluid See: Zenker, Friedrich Albert von
1. a liquid or gas; any liquid of the body.
2. composed of molecules which freely change their relative positions without separation of the mass.
the fluid contained within the allantois.
the fluid within the amnion that bathes the developing fetus and protects it from mechanical injury.
a state in which the volume of body water and its solutes (electrolytes and nonelectrolytes) are within normal limits and there is normal distribution of fluids within the intracellular and extracellular compartments. The total volume of body fluids should be about 60% of the body weight, and it should be distributed so that one-third is extracellular fluid and two-thirds intracellular fluid. Although this distribution remains constant in a healthy animal, there is continuous movement of fluid into and out of the various compartments. See also dehydration
the fluids within the body, composed of water, electrolytes and nonelectrolytes. The volume and distribution of body fluids vary with age, sex and amount of adipose tissue. Throughout life there is a slow decline in the volume of body fluids; obesity decreases the relative amount of water in the body.
Although the body fluids are continuously in motion, moving in and out of the cells, tissue spaces and vascular system, physiologists consider them to be 'compartmentalized'. Fluid within the cell membranes is called intracellular fluid and comprises about two-thirds of the total body fluids. The remaining one-third is outside the cell and is called extracellular fluid. The extracellular fluid can be further divided into tissue fluid (interstitial fluid), which is found in the spaces between the blood vessels and surrounding cells, and intravascular fluid, which is the fluid component of blood.
The maintenance of a proper balance between the intracellular and extracellular fluid volumes is essential to health. In patients with heart failure
and renal failure the balance becomes upset, producing either localized or generalized edema
. Excessive fluid loss produces fluid volume deficit causing cellular dehydration and impaired cellular function.
a histological fixative.
the fluid contained within the ventricles of the brain, the subarachnoid space, and the central canal of the spinal cord. See also cerebrospinal
see fluid dram.
a liquid preparation of a vegetable drug, containing alcohol as a solvent or preservative, or both, of such strength that each milliliter contains the therapeutic constituents of 1 gram of the standard drug it represents.
allantoic plus amniotic fluids.
the extracellular fluid bathing the cells in most tissues, excluding the fluid within the lymph and blood vessels.
having the same tonicity or osmotic pressure as blood.
aqueous fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands; called also tears.
in radiographs, the interface between fluid and gas, as in the gastrointestinal tract, will show as a straight line.
by vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, water deprivation. See dehydration
fluid mosaic model
the modern concept of the structure of a biological membrane developed by S.J. Singer and G.L. Nicolson. In it the membrane consists of protein molecules partly embedded in a discontinuous bilayer of phospholipids that form the matrix of a mosaic of functional cell units.
see fluid ounce.
pericardial, pleural, peritoneal fluid
normally present in amounts sufficient only to lubricate the movement of viscera within the respective cavities. Composition similar to blood serum.
see fluid therapy (below).
the limitation of oral fluid intake to a prescribed amount for each 24-hour period.
the fluid within the spinal canal.
fluid splashing sounds
audible when gas and fluid are free in a cavity, e.g. abomasum in cases of abomasal displacement; can be elicited by shaking a small animal or part of a large animal (i.e. succussion) or by simultaneous percussion and auscultation.
aims to replace fluids lost by disease process or by restriction of intake, or to maintain a high rate of fluid excretion to ensure removal of toxins, or to administer therapeutic or anesthetic agents slowly over a long period. The amounts and route of administration vary with the need of the patient. Normal solutions include 5% dextrose and Ringer's solution; alkalinizing fluids include lactated Ringer's and 1.3% sodium bicarbonate; acidifying solutions include isotonic saline and 1.9% ammonium chloride.
fluid volume deficit
an imbalance in fluid volume in which there is loss of fluid from the body not compensated for by an adequate intake of water. The major causes are: (1) insufficient fluid intake, and (2) excessive fluid loss from vomiting, diarrhea, suctioning of gastric contents, or drainage through operative wounds, burns or fistulae. Decreased volume in the intravascular compartment is called hypovolemia. Because water moves freely between the compartments, extracellular fluid deficit causes intracellular fluid deficit (cellular dehydration), which leaves the cells without adequate water to carry on normal function.
fluid volume excess
an overabundance of water in the interstitial fluid spaces or body cavities (edema) or an excess of fluid within the blood vessels (hypervolemia) and water intoxication.
Factors that contribute to the accumulation of edematous fluid are: (1) dilatation of the arteries, as occurs in the inflammatory process; (2) reduced effective osmotic pressure, as in hypoproteinemia, lymphatic obstruction and increased capillary permeability; (3) increased venous pressure, as in congestive heart failure, thrombophlebitis and cirrhosis of the liver; and (4) retention of sodium due to increased reabsorption of sodium by the renal tubules.