Incidences of spillover infection
involving sylvatic DENV-2 have been reported, but mainly in West Africa.
Later, the movement of infected free-roaming dogs from some of these towns might have been responsible for the spread of the disease and spillover infection
to cattle in surrounding villages (5).
Isolation of human-like influenza A (H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09-like viruses from pigs in Sri Lanka probably represents spillover infection
from humans, with self-limited transmission and extinction within pig herds.
Hendra virus infection is acquired by close contact with horses infected by spillover infection
from fruit bats, which are the natural reservoir for these viruses (7).
However, nucleotide sequencing showed the presence of prototypical Hantaan virus indicating a spillover infection
or laboratory contamination (7).
spinosus mice may be the reservoir for the Andes virus variant found in Madre de Dios and Puno, although spillover infection
from an alternate reservoir cannot be excluded.
In addition, we found a single spillover infection
here in rats (R.
Although the detected bat-derived sequences are somehow distinct from sequences of other USUV strains, a spillover infection
from birds or another, yet unrecognized, host cannot be ruled out.
Serologic analyses in these studies would not have differentiated whether distinct strains of hantaviruses were co-circulating or active spillover infection
was occurring among sympatric rodents at collection sites.
In the Serengeti Plain in Tanzania, a distinct strain of rabies appears to be maintained independently in spotted hyenas, without causing them any clinical disease, and with no evidence of spillover infection
or disease occurring in any other species (within the limits of current knowledge) (25).
The multiple outbreaks of NiV in Bangladesh, and the 2001 outbreak in West Bengal, show a continued risk for spillover infection
between bats and humans in this region.
lituratus bats within Latin America (Figure 1, panel A) may thus facilitate spillover infections
into other vertebrates across an underrecognized geographic and host range.