showed that the rise in MAP (manual sphygmomanometry
) by the fourth minute of moderate exercise (80% ventilatory threshold) was 5-10 mmHg higher in middle-aged and older subjects with DM [11, 20].
Measurements included heart rate using a BCI 3301 pulse oximeter, systolic and diastolic blood pressure using standard sphygmomanometry
, surface electromyography from the anterior deltoids and wrist/finger flexors of the dominant upper extremity, and galvanic skin response from the dominant hand.
These parameters were electrocardiography, automated sphygmomanometry
, and pulse oximetry, from which the vital signs of heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), blood pressure (BP), and peripheral arterial O2 saturation (SpO2) were derived.
Predetermined algorithms, usually based on mercury sphygmomanometry
, are used to determine BP measurements from the oscillometric signal (Cuckson et al., 2004).
Blood pressures were measured using mercury sphygmomanometers (Richter, Germany) in the sitting position according to the standard guidelines for measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometry
. Briefly after the subjects rested for five minutes in the seated position, a minimum of 2 readings were taken at intervals of at least 1 minute and the average of those readings was used to represent the patient's blood pressure.
Resting brachial blood pressure measured by audible sphygmomanometry
(Korotkoff phase I and IV) was recorded with the patient supine.
Noninvasive monitors, including electrocardiography, automated sphygmomanometry
, and pulse oximetry, are currently used in virtually all patients undergoing surgery, most patients in medical and surgical intensive care units, and many patients in nonspecialized nursing units.
readings are considered the "gold standard" and, unlike other devices, do not have to be calibrated.
During dialysis, blood pressures were measured by sphygmomanometry
at 30-minute intervals prior to meals and every 15 minutes following meals.
) underestimate intra-arterial measures of systolic blood pressure (SBP) taken at rest, and during and after aerobic and isometric exercise (2).