sphincter of Oddi


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sphincter

 [sfingk´ter]
a circular muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural orifice. When relaxed, a sphincter allows materials to pass through the opening. When contracted, it closes the opening. Four main sphincter muscles along the alimentary canal aid in digestion: the cardiac sphincter, the pyloric sphincter, and two anal sphincters. Other sphincters are found in the iris of the eye, the bile duct (sphincter of Oddi), the urinary tract, and elsewhere.
anal sphincter (sphincter a´ni) either of two sphincters (the internal and external anal sphincters) that open and close to control evacuation of feces from the anus.
cardiac sphincter a sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach, opening at the approach of food that can then be swept into the stomach by rhythmic peristaltic waves.
sphincter of Oddi a sheath of muscle fibers investing the associated bile and pancreatic passages as they traverse the wall of the duodenum.
pyloric sphincter a sphincter at the opening from the stomach into the duodenum; it is usually closed, opening only for a moment when a peristaltic wave passes over it.
urinary sphincter, artificial a fluid-filled system that surrounds the urethra with a silicone cuff that functions as a sphincter; a pump is in the scrotum and a fluid reservoir is in the abdomen. For urination, the pump's release valve is squeezed to allow the fluid to leave the urethral cuff and return to the reservoir; after urination is complete, the pump is squeezed and the fluid returns to the cuff to occlude the urethra.

sphinc·ter of Od·di

(sfingk'tĕr od'ē)
A valvelike muscular sheath surrounding the distal pancreatic and common bile ducts as they enter the duodenum together.

sphincter of Oddi

The smooth muscle ring that surrounds the common bile duct at the point at which it enters the DUODENUM. (Ruggero Oddi, Italian physician, 1864–1913).

Oddi,

Ruggero, Italian physician, 1864-1913.
sphincter of Oddi - the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. Synonym(s): sphincter of hepatopancreatic ampulla
References in periodicals archive ?
In dogs and cats, the sphincter of Oddi is under direct adrenergic control from the sympathetic plexus and ganglia, with the participation of adrenergic axons of the vagus being apparently questionable (82).
In recent years, preservation of the sphincter of Oddi using hepatico-subcutaneous stoma (OSPCHS) has been proposed as an optional technique for hepatolithiasis.
Botulinum toxin-induced relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi may select patients with acalculous biliary pain who will benefit from cholecystectomy.
We reclassified pT1a as tumors limited to within sphincter of Oddi (Figure 2, A), and we reclassified pT1b as AC that invaded beyond the sphincter of Oddi (perisphincteric invasion) and/or into the duodenal submucosa (Figure 2, B).
Initial research on the effects of alcohol on the pancreas focused on sphincter of Oddi activity.
Removal of bile duct stones with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy of the sphincter of Oddi results in less overall morbidity and severe morbidity than endoscopic balloon dilation in relatively young and healthy patients, according to the results of a randomized, prospective trial.
Tegaserod is contraindicated in patients with a history of bowel obstruction, symptomatic gallbladder disease, abdominal adhesions, or suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.
Tegaserod is contraindicated in patients with a history of bowel obstruction, symptomatic gallbladder disease, abdominal adhesions, or suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, But for a patient with a history of surgery for appendicitis in the distant past who has no evidence of obstruction, there's no reason to hesitate to prescribe the drug, said Dr.
An ERCP is a way your doctor can examine your pancreas, pancreatic duct, the common bile duct, and/or sphincter of Oddi. It involves passage of a long, narrow tube called an endoscope used to put X-ray contrast dye into the bile and pancreas ducts.
Other obstructive causes for pancreatitis include pancreatic or pancreatic ductal tumors, or a hypersensitive sphincter of Oddi. Any mass that obstructs the pancreatic ducts can result in pancreatitis, presumably by causing reflux of bile into the pancreatic ductal tree, damaging acinar cells (Steinberg & Tenner, 1994).
As far as we know, several studies have demonstrated a severe permanent impairment of sphincter of Oddi function after EST; subsequent duodenobiliary reflux and bacterial contamination after EST can cause late biliary complications such as cholangitis and stone formation [4, 35].
Patient factors include female gender, younger age, sphincter of oddi dysfunction, cannulation difficulty, pancreatic divisum, previous history of post ERCP pancreatitis and operator factors include inexperienced operator, prolonged procedure time and repeated injection into pancreatic duct9.

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