Our main tasks have been to prove the impact origin of the spherules
found (Raukas 1997; Marini et al.
A 2002 study "pulsed" dendritic cells from infected patients and nonimmune individuals with coccidioidal antigen derived from spherules
and demonstrated lymphocyte proliferation in response.
Direct examination: Direct microscopical examination of the secretions (alveolar aspirate, cerebrospinal fluid, exudate) stained with calcofluor-white (which joins the chitin or cellulose of the cell wall) and observed in a fluorescence microscope, allow the visualizing the spherules
with a 22% sensitivity.
The results were interpreted as indicating the presence of spherical fine-grained (~ 4-5 nm) magnetite particles, suggested to come from weathered glass spherules
produced by the Chicxulub impact.
Moreover, industrial spherules
may contaminate the natural glasses, both at the outcrop and during laboratory treatments [3-5].
Multiple methods exist for the diagnosis of coccidioidal infection, including microscopic detection of endospore containing spherules
within tissue or fluid samples, molecular detection using nucleic acid amplification with polymerase chain reaction, cultures on fungal or bacterial media, and serologic testing.
Investigating 18 sites across North America, Europe and the Middle East, Kennett and 28 colleagues from 24 institutions analyzed the spherules
, tiny spheres formed by the high temperature melting of rocks and soils that then cooled or quenched rapidly in the atmosphere.
The researchers haven't discovered any so-called shocked minerals in the spherule
The spheres appear to accumulate in the leaky vasculature, or blood vessels, of tumours, releasing their cargo in a controlled, sustained fashion as the spherule
walls and scaffolding break down in the bloodstream.
It discusses application of molecular approaches to identify key proteins expressed during arthroconidial and spherule
morphogenesis at each stage of the disease process and to dissect the corresponding interactions with the immune system.
In the uppermost region of the shaft, cells that resemble the spherule
cells of the coelom can be found between tooth and jaw [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 7 OMITTED] (for review of coelomocytes see Smith, 1981).
3,4) Coccidioidomycosis may extend to meninges, bone, skin, lymph nodes, and subcutaneous tissue; it is caused by Coccidioidis immitis, a 10- to 60-[micro]m spherule
yeast that contains endospores.