as a substrate is involved in the first step of this process.
contributed least to total levels ([less than or equal to] 6.
and spermine), which are known to increase their expression under water stress in vascular plants and algae (Guill & Tuteja, 2010; Alcazar et al.
According to Frank Madeo from the Institute for Molecular Bioscience at the University of Graz, spermidine
is found in all body cells, though its concentration decreases with age.
Wen X, Banc Y, Inouea H, Matsudad N, Moriguchi T (2009) Aluminum tolerance in a spermidine
synthaseoverexpressing transgenic European pear is correlated with the enhanced level of spermidine
via alleviating oxidative status.
2]] which is synthesized from two GSH and one spermidine
molecule by glutathionyl spermidine
/trypanothione synthetase (TryS) enzyme, an ATP driven reaction (4).
These polyamines, including spermine and spermidine
, have been shown to accumulate in the synovium and urine of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
10 mmol/L spermidine
, and 20 [micro]mol/L dNTP mixture at 37[degrees]C for 30 min.
Enhanced polyamine accumulation alters carotenoid metabolism at the transcriptional level in tomato fruit over-expressing spermidine
treatment to rice seedlings recovers salinity stress-induced damage of plasma membrane and PM-bound H+-ATPase in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice cultivars.
Putrescine is converted to spermidine
and spermine with the help of SAMe, and these two polyamines then act in the cell to influence gene expression, cell proliferation and growth, the flow of calcium and the production of yet other regulators.
Amdl (Adenosyl methionine decarboxylase) is required for the synthesis of the polyamines spermine and spermidine