spermicides


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spermicides

Contraceptive preparations designed to kill SPERMATOZOA. In general, spermicides used alone are unreliable as contraceptives.
References in periodicals archive ?
Some have spermicide added, usually nonoxynol-9 in the United States, to kill sperm.
It is not known what proportion of spermicide use refers to different formulations, but all spermicides in the USA contain N-9.
A spermicide kills or disables sperm so that it cannot cause pregnancy Spermicides come in many different forms--jelly, cream, film, and suppositories--and most use the chemical non-oxynol-9.
Nonoxynol-9, the only spermicide available in the United States, is considered safe for most users, but it is a detergent that disrupts epithelial surfaces.
In contrast, barrier methods such as spermicides, diaphragms and female condoms, showed higher cost-effectiveness ratios with perfect use than injectables, oral contraceptives and tubal ligation.
Spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 (N-9) increase the risk of HIV infection when used frequently by women at high risk of infection, but they remain a moderately effective contraceptive option for women at low risk of infection, technical experts convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.
A promising new class of spermicides has the potential to perform better, and with fewer drawbacks, than those available today.
The use of spermicides which can be applied in the form of foams, jellies, and films may offer an alternative means of STD risk reduction when condoms cannot be used.
By contrast, both barrier products, including condoms, and other methods, such as spermicides, saw their market value decline, the latter by nearly 20% over the review period.
Spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 are a safe option for women who are at low risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, according to a study from the University of Pittsburgh.
Condoms and spermicides are often kept locked behind glass cabinets in many drug stores.