Coinciding with decreased returns to the Penobscot River there has been a reduction in the percentage of the run of repeat spawners
from an average of 1.7% in the 1980s to an average of 0.6% in recent years (Maynard et al., 2017).
But larvae of both brooders and spawners
settled in response to the microbial-produced compound tetrabromopyrrole (Sneed et al., 2014).
Snails that were 2 (2.0-2.8 cm), 3 (3.0-3.8 cm), 4 (4.0-4.6 cm), and +4-y-olds (4.7-6.3 cm) were considered as potential spawners
were the largest female and largest male in the exhibit.
The determinate fecundity spawners
are fishes that produce several oocytes synchronously to be spawned in a short period.
Although heterochronal spawners
might not benefit from predator satiation as much as isochronal spawners
, they do benefit from an increase in fecundity, a spread of predation risk, a spread of larval impact on their prey, and a decrease in the risk of spawning eggs in unfavorable conditions (12).
In addition, interannual differences in length-specific fecundity of the Norwegian spring spawning herring were explained by variation in weight-at-length, that is higher fecundity of spawners
in better condition (Oskarsson et al., 2002).
All of spawner
fish were subsequently kept at out-door circular concrete at a density up to 10 kg/m3.
We then identified organizations that appeared multiple times as previous employers across the sample and, hence, could be considered "spawners
" of entrepreneurial leaders.
Corals may be the most famous of the mass spawners
. Sweeney recalls a coordinated spawning along miles of reef in Palau that left a fragrant pink slick still visible the next day: "You come out of the water smelling like rotten flower shop."
Sound production often is associated with courtship and reproduction and is often in fishes with reproductive strategies that require defending a limited resource (crevice spawners
, cavity spawners
This year's forecast is for 245,000 spawners
, a sizable boost, although still well below the healthy returns from five years ago that reached 700,000 fish.