"Pediatric upper limb spasticity
is a significant concern and can negatively impact a child's development and quality of life," said Mark Gormley, Jr.
In conclusion, the change of the neural excitability after stroke may cause the spasticity
which can be released through modulating the activity of the GABA-a receptors in the cerebral cortex by the peripheral injection of the Botox.
is more often found in flexor muscles of the upper limbs, and in extensor muscles of the lower limbs [1, 3].
Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) having chronic phase (at least 12 months) unilateral stroke, (2) having an ischemic or hemorrhagic poststroke hemiplegia, (3) having calf muscle spasticity
score; 1+ to 3 by Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) , and (4) being able to reach at least Brunnstrom stage 3 at the leg.
Many investigators have studied the effectiveness of hand splinting in the management of spasticity
and contractures with conflicting results.
In an initial study, two physicians trained in spasticity
assessment were instructed to test the glove on five different patients with cerebral palsy.
The patients were identified from the spasticity
1,2 The disorder varies in the clinical presentation, timing of the lesion, site and severity of the impairments.3 The prevalence of cerebral palsy is reported between 2 and 3 per 1,000 live births.4,5 Spastic CP, particularly spastic diplegia, is the most common form of CP, accounting for 50-60% of total cases.2,6,7 Spasticity
has severe adverse effects on muscles and joints, particularly in extremities.1 Both limbs, however, may exhibit difference in pattern of spasticity
from each other.4 Spasticity
is generally worse in the lower limbs in children with bilateral involvement.6 The most commonly involved lower limb muscles include gastrocnemius, soleus, adductors, hamstrings, psoas and rectus femoris.1,6
Individuals with spasticity
after stroke who were receiving treatment in an outpatient spasticity
clinic were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study.
About 80 percent of people with MS have spasticity
, which ranges from mild to severe.
It is clear from this month's CME that the mere presence of epilepsy or spasticity
is not a trigger for surgery.
Editors Stevenson and Jarrett present readers with the second edition of their collection of contributions focused on the neurological symptom spasticity
. The editors have organized the contributions that make up the main body of the text in two parts devoted to nine chapters focused on spasticity
, assessment of the individual with spasticity
, provision of education and promoting of self-management, and other related subjects; and seventeen appendices focused on focal spasticity
multidisciplinary proforma, spasticity
outcome measures form, managing spasticity
and spasms, and many other related topics.