Most resistant antibacterials were AZM 87.2%, CXM and CTX 83.6% each, AMC 63.6% and Sparfloxacin
(SPFX), a fluoroquinolone, has a wide range of antibacterial activity and is often a second-line drug for treatment of leprosy (1-3).
Moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin
, and ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: evaluation of in vitro and pharmacodynamic indices that best predict in vivo efficacy.
NorA has more affinity to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, enoxacin) than hydrophobic compounds(sparfloxacin
, trovafloxacin, levofloxacin) (7).
Psomas, "Cobalt(II) complexes of sparfloxacin
: Characterization, structure, antimicrobial activity and interaction with DNA and albumins," Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol.
Part 1-nickel(II) complexes with the antibacterial drug sparfloxacin
: structure and biological properties," Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol.
Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined both by disk diffusion method of Kirby-Bauer and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method on Muller-Hinton agar as described by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) 2014.12 Antibiotics used for antibiogram determination of the collected strains among FQ were: norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, moxifloxacin, and sparfloxacin
and nalidixic acid.
pylori resistance to CLA was 28%, to amoxicillin at 19%, and to FLQ (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin at 7%, sparfloxacin
and gatifloxacin at 3%, and levofloxacin and moxifloxacin at 1%) .
(antibacterial) and Ketoconazole (antifungal) were used as standard drugs.
Allen et al., "In vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin
, ofloxacin, amikacin and rifampicin against Ghanaian isolates of Mycobacterium ulcerans," Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.
(2010) who reported antibiotic sensitivity of 22 isolates of E.coli and were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin 21 (96.15%), Norfloxacin 20 (92.31%), Pefloxacin 20 (92.31%), Cotrimoxazole 19 (84.61%), Sparfloxacin
18 (80.76%), Ofloxacin 18 (80.76%), Amoxycillin 17 (76.92%) and Chloromphenical 3 (15.38%).
Gangadharam, "Treatment of intracellular Mycobacterium avium complex infection by free and liposome-encapsulated sparfloxacin
," Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.