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The researchers then matched children who had been spanked with those who hadn't according to 38 child- and family-related characteristics, including: the child's age, gender, overall health, and behaviour problems at age 5; the parent's education, age, and marital status; the family socioeconomic status and household size; and factors related to parenting quality and conflict in the home.
Groups (those who never spanked or hit with an object, and those who did spank or hit at least sometimes) of mothers were compared on their status on the study's independent variables using t tests (BSI-Dep, MSPSS, GSE, ACT-PRSK Crying Child, and SES).
Straus found that children in the United States who were spanked had lower IQs four years later than those who were not spanked.
These study findings are of particular concern because a full 57% of these children were spanked by their mothers and 40% by their fathers at 3 years of age, and those rates declined only slightly at 5 years of age.
Those who were spanked or hit as kids were between two and seven percent more likely to encounter mental issues later, said the research in the US journal Pediatrics, based on a retrospective survey of more than 600 US adults.
Rather, the more children are spanked, the worse behaved they are over time.
On average, authoritative parents spanked just as much as the average of all other parents.
The book - the basis for a new Channel 4 documentary - details Spank Daddy's modus operandi, which is to meet women face-to-face to assess their motives for wanting to be spanked, as well as his experiences.
But it didn't help their behavior," says the single mother, who recalls that she was spanked by her mother.
Most also emphasize that children under two and older than 10 should never be spanked.
I must confess that I spanked my children when they disobeyed or did something they knew was wrong.
Did you know Serena spanked a serve earlier this week at 201kph?
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