Over 100 spadices of each gender were collected haphazardly in July 1991 and April 1992 and examined in the laboratory for the percent removed presumably by fishes, based on cleanly cut spadices and by comparison to the average length of a male spadix.
I separated samples into (1) spadices, selecting females with stigmas exerted on the majority of flowers and males with mature intact anthers, and (2) the remainder of the flowering shoot biomass (branched stalk).
Seeds were most numerous in August, by which time many of the spadices had dehisced.
Because flowering shoots of surfgrass are modular, reproduction by the population is a function of numbers of flowering shoots in the population and spadices per shoot, and flowers, fruits, and seeds per spadix, and a trade-off, for example, between the number of shoots vs.
7), the number of spadices per shoot declined significantly with depth (P [is less than] 0.000, df = 1, 36), paralleling the female pattern (see below, Fertilization potential).