Participants assigned to Group 1 were exposed to (1) a pre-class formation sorting test
(Pre-SRT), (2) training baseline relations until the 100 % correct criterion, (3) thinning of consequences, (4) a post-class formation sorting test
(SRT1), (5) two test blocks of emergent relations (MTS-1), and finally (6) a new post-class formation sorting test
In addition, his impairment in abstract thinking and problem solving was evident from the Wisconsin card sorting test
, TMT-B performance correlates more closely with cognitive flexibility measures (i.e., perseveration errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
) (WCST ; see , for review) than with working memory measures (i.e., failure to maintain set score on WCST).
of Disexecutive Profile Syndrome) Temporal Judgement 2 Zoo Map 2 WCST (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
) Percentile Total % of errors 90 % Perseverative Responses 94 No.
Many of these have focused on the durability of gains achieved during training on a single task (e.g., Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
[WCST] or Span of Apprehension) and, in general, indicate that improvements are sustained, although follow-up periods have been relatively brief, 6 weeks at most [11-15].
However, the adjunctive HupA group did have significantly greater improvement than the antidepressant only group in cognitive functioning (as assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised) and in quality of life.
One goal of the present experiment is to determine whether similar outcomes can be obtained with another mix of trial formats: MTS-based trials to establish the baseline relations followed by a sorting test
to assess the emergence of equivalence classes.
The protocols' effectiveness was also assessed with a post-class formation sorting test
, considered an additional measure of equivalence class formation (e.g., Arntzen, Granmo, & Fields, 2017; Fields, Arntzen, & Moksness, 2014).
A socio-demographic data form, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
(WCST) were administered to all the patients.
b) The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
(WCST) (Heaton, 1981), which evaluates hypothesis formation, problem solving, the ability to shift cognitive sets, abstraction skills, and cognitive flexibility, in addition to concept formation and planning (Gameiro, Perea, Ladera, Rosa & Garcia , 2017).
The result suggests that there are impairments in both neurocognitive functions (Clock Drawing Test, Trail Marking Test, Digit Span Test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
, Verbal Fluency Test, Semantic Similarity Test, Stroop Color-Word Test) and social cognitive function (Facial Emotion Cognition Task), and that the cerebral grey matter volume of patients with schizophrenia is also abnormal (left superior frontal gyrus, occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus and upper cerebellum).
Salivary Cortisol Levels and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test