A homogenous dispersion of CNW suspension was obtained through sonication for 5 min using a Heilscher UP 400S sonifier
. During the hydrolysis process, sulfuric acid reacts with hydroxyl groups on the surface of CNWs, leading to the replacement of some hydroxyl groups by the negatively charged sulfonate groups, which are randomly distributed on the surface of nanowhiskers .
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To immobilize avidin, 15 mg of glutaraldehyde activated MNPs was dispersed in 20 mL PBS buffer (0.1 mol/L, pH 8.0) and sonicated for 5 s at 20 W by a Ti probe (Branson 450 sonifier
0.03 wt % of CNTs were added to the solution and treated with a horn sonicator (Branson Sonifier
S-450D) for 25 min at a power of 50%.
Lyophilized microalgal biomass with 2% of BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene) and chloroform was treated by ultrasonic (Branson Sonifier
450): 40 KHz for 15 min at room temperature.
Briefly, the dispersion of SWCNTs in 2% solution of deoxycholate sodium salt (DOC, Tokyo Chemical Industry Co.) was prepared using a digital sonifier
. The solution of SWCNTs and five mixtures of 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, Aldrich) solution with 27.5, 30, 32.5, 35, and 40 wt% iodixanol (COSMO BIO Co.) solutions were put layer by layer into a centrifuge tube (Hitachi Koki Co.) in order to form the density gradient.
A low-frequency (20 kHz) horn-type ultrasonicator (Sonifier
450, Ti horn of diameter 1.1 cm, maximum power 400 W, Branson Co., Tokyo, Japan) and a high-frequency (200 kHz) planar-type ultrasonicator (Kaijo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were used to accelerate the hydrolysis reaction.
La disrupcion de los parasitos fue logrado usando un sonicador (Brason sonifier
modelo 150, EUA) a una frecuencia de 7 Hertz y 5 ciclos por 20 seg., alternando con un minuto (min) de descanso en hielo, luego se procedio a colocar una gota sobre un portaobjeto para observar al microscopio el rompimiento de los parasitos.
For the other fraction the after centrifugation supernatant was discarded and pellet (cells) was washed in saline water and then they were disrupted by ultrasonic treatment (Sonifier
Branson 250) by using a 20% duty cycle at output 3 for 5 min and centrifuged at 6,000g for 15 minutes.
In order to produce nanodroplets of monomer, a high-shear device is used (sonifier
, rotor-stator system as Ultra-Turrax or high-pressure homogenizer) producing a miniemulsion with average droplet sizes between 50 and 500 nm, which is then polymerized .
The uncured suspension of [Er.sub.2][O.sub.3] powder and silicone elastomer was probe sonicated (Branson Digital Sonifier
450D, standard 13 mm tapped horn, Crystal Electronics, Newmarket, ON, Canada) for a total of 35 minutes with 25% amplitude and a duty cycle of 30 s ON to 10 s OFF.
After incubation on ice for 30 min the cells were disrupted on Branson Sonifier
250 (4 cycles of 1 min pulses at amplitude 40%).