The GH gene family is organized into five highly similar genes namely growth hormone-1 (GH-1), chorionic somatomammotropin
hormone-like-1 (CSHP-1), chorionic somatomammotropin
hormone-1 (CSH-1); growth hormone-2 (GH-2) and chorionic somatomammotropin
hormone-2 (CSH-2), spanning a region of 66-67kb on chromosome 17q23.
Hormones produced by the placenta include human chorionic gonadotropin, chorionic somatomammotropin
, or placental lactogen, whose action stimulates changes in the metabolism of carbohydrates in the mother in relation to the nutrition of the fetus.
 Human genes: ANXA1, annexin A1; S700AS, S100 calcium binding protein A8; S100A9, S100 calcium binding protein A9; S100P, S100 calcium binding protein P; BPI, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein; PGLYRP1, peptidoglycan recognition protein 1; CSH1, chorionic somatomammotropin
hormone 1; CSH2, chorionic somatomammotropin
hormone 2; CGA, glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide; PSG1, pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 1; PAPPA, pappalysin 1; ALAS2, 5'-aminolevulinate synthase 2; GYPA, glycophorin A (MNS blood group); ANK1, ankyrin 1.
Grumbach, "Regulation of placental growth and chorionic somatomammotropin
in the rhesus monkey: effects of protein deprivation, fetal anencephaly, and placental vessel ligation," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.
Chakrabarty, (114) the first gene patent was issued to the Regents of the University of California for recombinant DNA transfer vectors containing codons for human somatomammotropin
and for human growth hormone.
The placenta also produces placental lactogen (or somatomammotropin
), a polypeptide that expresses prolactin-like and growth hormone-like activities.
Choriocarcinoma in man: relationship of gynecomasia to chronic somatomammotropin
Abnormal adolescent primiparous pregnancy: association of race, human chorionic somatomammotropin
production, and smoking.
Mammalian placental lactogen, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin
is crucial in controlling the growth of mammary tissue during pregnancy and its release during pregnancy accounts for increased mammogenesis.
 Human genes: PLAC4, placenta-specific 4; CSH1, chorionic somatomammotropin
hormone 1 (placental lactogen); CGB, chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide; CRH, corticotropin releasing hormone.
(1979), ethanol inhibits the synthesis of the chorionic somatomammotropin
. ASA (150 or 300 mg/ kg), administered on the PD10, 1 h before ethanol (5.8 g/ kg), showed a protective action on the reduction of the fetal weight caused by ethanol in mice (Randall et al., 1991a,b).
The hormones secreted by the placenta are human chorionic gonadotropin, human chorionic somatomammotropins
, human chorionic thyrotropin, placental progesterone, placental estrogen, and relaxin.