It was 2.19 times higher for depression, 2.62 times higher for somatoform
disorders (mental illnesses that cause bodily symptoms with no discernible cause), 2.66 times higher for neurotic disorders, 2.58 times higher for nonorganic sleep disorders, and 2.92 times higher for anxiety.
In the chapter In orizontul anxietatii / On the Anxiety, Ibraileanu is "possessed by hypochondria" and "phobias", but also by an "insomnia" full of "troubles and anxiety", tormented by "sadness and sinister thoughts." This state of chronic anxiety and uncontrollable worries has a various etiology circumscribed not only to an unbridled inner fret, but also to a feverish anxiety amid a tired precipitation, sustained by a physical strain resulting from a sleepy and circadian arrhythmia, often associated with neurotic, stress, and somatoform
Patients with somatoform
disorders (using pre-DSM-5 terminology) frequently present with chronic pain, often in multiple sites.
The prevalence rates of depressive disorders were 14%, for anxiety disorders 8%, for somatoform
disorders 2%, and for alcohol dependence 2%.
Violence against women is associated with a number of mental health problems including mood, anxiety, post- traumatic stress, and somatoform
disorders, it said.
To further illustrate the problem, a recent study has shown that 63.1% of the population in Europe over the age 65 years reported having three or more somatoform
disorders during their lifetime .
(10) The Clinical Manual of Psychosomatic Medicine (2012) classifies psychosomatic symptoms as somatoform
and related disorders', including somatisation disorder, undifferentiated somatoform
disorder, undifferentiated somatoform
disorder, hypochondriasis, conversion disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, pain disorder, factitious disorder, and malingering.
They treat patients with comorbid psychiatric and general medical illness; those with psychiatric illness directly tied to a primary medical condition, such as dementia or delirium; those with "complex illness behavior such as 'somatoform
' disorders"; and those admitted to medical-surgical units after incidents such as attempted suicide.
These are neurotic, stress-related somatoform
disorders with 26 afflicted; schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders with 12; mood disorders with five; organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders with one; and unspecified mental disorder with two, partial data last year showed.
So, an attempt has been made to classify PNES on the basis of eight underlying etiologies which are acute stresses, anxiety /panic/physical symptoms, depressed/ dissatisfaction, poor interpersonal skills and affect regulation, disturbed family system, psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD)/ dissociation, reinforced behavior pattern & somatization / somatoform
/ conversion (Gates, 2000; Bowman & Markand, 1996; La Farance & Devinsky, 2002; Reuber & House, 2002; & Barry & Sanborn, 2001; Rusch, Morris, Allen, & Lathrop, 2001).
The DSM-III gave up using the term "hysteria", being too imprecise and having various definitions, and the features of this pathology made up different diagnoses: dissociative disorders, somatoform
disorders (conversion disorder and somatization disorder), posttraumatic stress disorder in the anxiety disorders section, histrionic personality disorder and borderline personality disorder (1).
Increased risks in the continuation group compared with the discontinuation group was also observed for autism spectrum disorder, mood disorder, somatoform
disorder, and behavioural disorder, but not mental retardation.