3) As a matter of fact, we do not know at this point which of the possible sources of disease-specific pluri-potent human stem cells--genetically screened IVF embryos, iPS cells, somatic cell
nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, (4) or somatic cell
chromosome transfer into zygotes and blastomeres that have had their own chromosomes removed (5)--will prove to be the best for clinical applications, all other things considered.
An optimum transformation for somatic cell
concentration in milk.
Developing spermatogonia and oogonia have two functional centrioles (diplosomes) in their centrosomes, showing the typical "9+0" organization of microtubule triplets --common to all somatic cells
Eight calves cloned from somatic cells
of a single adult.
Intrigued, Weismann made an astonishing prediction in 1881, speculating that the reason individuals age is that somatic cells
(what we are mostly made of) have somehow lost the capacity (still inherent in primitive single-celled creatures) for proliferating without limit.
elegans mutants with extreme longevity accomplish this feat, in part, by adopting genetic programs normally restricted to the germline into somatic cells
," Nature magazine quoted lead author Dr.
Lactation stage, parity, and infection affecting somatic cells
, electrical conductivity, and serum albumin in milk.
The plan also calls for aggressively pursuing an assessment of the potential of alternative sources of pluripotent stem cell lines, including altered nuclear transfer; single cell embryo biopsy, and reprogramming, or dedifferentiation of somatic cells
, such as skin cells.
ANT is based on the technique of somatic cell
nuclear transfer--cloning--with one modification: some developmental genes in the somatic cell
nucleus would be silenced prior to transfer to the enucleated oocyte.
7) Another alternative may be to transfer human somatic cells
into nonhuman eggs to produce NT-hESC lines--not for the purposes of autologous transplantation, but to study targeted human diseases at the cellular level.
Second, as part of a series of solicitations to be released over the next 5 years, NIEHS announced RFA ES-05-007, Environmental Influences on Epigenetic Regulation, to support research on environmental stressor effects on gene silencing in somatic cells
and altered methylation profiles that are related to disease outcomes at various stages of the life span.
The patents include published United States patent applications numbers 20030224345, 20040199935, and 20040219563 which describe the fusion of the cytoplasm of egg cells, or embryonic stem cells with somatic cells
to reprogram the somatic cells
back to a pluripotent stem cell state and the use of gene trap technology to identify and induce differentiation of stem cells.