solitary pulmonary nodule


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solitary pulmonary nodule

(sol'i-tār-ē pul'mō-nār-ē),
an isolated density usually smaller than 3 cm in diameter found on a plain chest radiograph (some clinicians would include CT scan), completely surrounded by aerated lung and not associated with atelectasis or adenopathy.
A rounded, circumscribed nodule measuring < 4 cm that may be surrounded by well-aerated pulmonary parenchyma, which often—about half of cases identified in the US—appears as an incidental finding in an otherwise unremarkable plain chest X-ray
Diagnosis Age, smoking history, geographic location, history of previous malignancy
Aetiology Infection (abscesses, aspergilloma, bacteria, coccidioidomycosis, echinococcal cysts, Dirofilaria immitis, histoplasmosis, TB), benign masses (bronchial adenoma, chondroma, diaphragmatic hernia, benign mesothelioma), neurogenic tumour, sarcoidosis, sclerosing hemangioma, Wegener’s granulomatosis, rheumatoid nodules; malignant masses—1º lung cancer—which comprise 35%, metastases ± 10%, sarcoma, myeloma, Hodgkin’s disease, choriocarcinoma

solitary pulmonary nodule

Any isolated mass lesion found in the lung, usually during an x-ray study performed for another reason. Most small masses that are identified in this way are benign, although smokers, patients already known to have cancer in another organ system, and older patients have an increased risk that a solitary nodule will be a new malignancy or a metastasis from another source.

Patient care

The first step in evaluating a solitary lung nodule is to search for prior chest x-ray films. If the nodule can be found on films done many months or years earlier and has not changed in size, shape, or calcification, it is likely to be benign and can be followed conservatively. Newly identified lesions within the lung that were not previously present usually are evaluated with further studies, such as computed tomography of the lungs, sputum studies, or biopsies.

See also: nodule
References in periodicals archive ?
Solitary pulmonary nodules, part I: morphologic evaluation for differentiation of benign and malignant lesions.
The value of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules in areas with a high incidence of tuberculosis.
The widespread use of chest computed tomography (CT) scanning technology has contributed to significantly increased detection of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs).
The study showed that the radiologists would have correctly diagnosed a pair of solitary pulmonary nodule cases, one malignant and one benign, between 75% and 83% of the time.
There has been a dramatic increase in the last decade in the utilization of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the evaluation of chest disease, resulting in an increased detection of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs).
In January 2003 the American College of Chest Physicians Expert Panel on Lung Cancer Guidelines released its guideline on evaluating a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN), an intraparenchymal lung lesion <3 cm in diameter unassociated with atelectasis or adenopathy.
Weiss JM et al; Transthoracic Needle aspiration biopsy following negative fibreoptic bronchoscopy in solitary pulmonary nodule chest 1988; Jun 93 (6); 1152-5.
Describe CT assessment of the solitary pulmonary nodule and CT diagnosis of large airways disease
Chest radiograph may show non-specific findings like focal lung consolidation, solitary pulmonary nodule or a mass.
4,6) Available appropriateness criteria for the workup of the solitary pulmonary nodule have been generated solely by the American College of Radiology, who generally recommend the use of CT scanning, TFNAB, and positron emission tomography scanning as the most appropriate diagnostic tests for evaluation of noncalcified nodules.
Solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is typically defined as an intra-parenchymal focal, round or oval area of increased opacity <3 cm in diameter.