soleus


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so·le·us (mus·cle)

[TA]
muscle of superficial posterior (plantar flexor) compartment of leg; origin, posterior surface of head and upper third of the shaft of the fibula, oblique line and middle third of medial margin of the tibia, and a tendinous arch passing between tibia and fibula over the popliteal vessels; insertion, with gastrocnemius by tendo calcaneus (achillis) into the tuberosity of calcaneus; action, plantar flexion of foot; nerve supply, tibial.
Synonym(s): musculus soleus [TA]

soleus

(sō′lē-əs)
n. pl. so·lei (-lē-ī′)
A broad, flat muscle of the calf of the leg, situated under the gastrocnemius, whose action is to flex the foot downward.

soleus

[sō′lē·əs]
Etymology: L, solea, sole of foot
one of three superficial posterior muscles of the leg. It is a broad, flat muscle lying just under the gastrocnemius. The fibers of the soleus merge near the middle of the leg with those of the gastrocnemius to form the tendo calcaneus, which inserts into the calcaneus of the foot. The soleus plantar flexes the foot. Compare gastrocnemius, plantaris.

soleus

muscle within superficial compartment of posterior aspect of lower leg (see Table 1 and Table 2)
  • origins fibula (posterior surface of head and upper one-third), tibia (soleal line and middle one-third of medial border) and soft tissues (tendinous arch overlying politeal vessels and tibial nerve)

  • insertion tendon unites with deep part of Achilles tendon, inserting middle facet of posterior aspect of calcaneum (see Achilles tendon)

  • nerve supply tibial nerve

  • action see gastrocnemius

Table 1: Muscles acting on the joints of the lower limb and foot
JointMuscleMuscle originMuscle insertion
Hip onlyAdductor longus
Adductor brevis
Adductor magnus
Psoas major
Iliacus
Pectineus
Gluteus minimus
Gluteus medius
Gluteus maximus (deep quarter)
Piriformis
Obturator externus
Obturator internus
Gemelli
Body of pubis
Body and inferior ramus of pubis
Inferior ramus of pubis
Lumbar vertebrae
Iliac fossa
Body and superior ramus of pubis
Ileum
Ileum
Sacrum
Sacrum
Obturator membrane
Internal surfaces of ileum, pubis
Ischium, sides of sciatic notch
Linea aspera of posterior femur
Linea aspera of posterior femur
Lower medial femur, adductor tubercle
Lesser trochanter
Femur, inferior to lesser trochanter
Posterior area of lesser trochanter
Anterior area greater trochanter
Lateral area greater trochanter
Gluteal tuberosity of femur
Greater trochanter
Trochanteric fossa
Medial area greater trochanter
Medial area greater trochanter
Hip and kneeBiceps femoris (long head)
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Gracilis
Sartorius
Tensor fasciae lata
Rectus femoris
Gluteus maximus (superior three-quarters)
Ischial tuberosity
Ischial tuberosity
Ischial tuberosity
Body and inferior ramus of pubis
Anterior superior iliac spine
Anterior one-quarter of iliac crest
Anterior ileum
Posterior area of ileum and sacrum
Head of fibula
Posterior-area medial tibial condyle
Upper one-quarter medial tibia
Upper one-quarter medial tibia
Upper one-quarter medial tibia
Lateral condyle tibia via iliotibial tract
Patella, via quadriceps tendon
Lateral condyle tibia via iliotibial tract
Knee onlyVastus medialis
Vastus intermedius
Vastus lateralis
Biceps femoris (short head)
Popliteus
Anterior upper femur and tendon of adductor magnus
Anterior and lateral surfaces of body of femur
Greater trochanter and linea aspera of femur
Linea aspera
Lateral condyle of femur
Superior and medial surfaces of patella and capsule of knee joint
Superior surface of patella and suprapatellar bursa
Superior and lateral surfaces of patella and capsule of knee joint
Head of fibula
Posterior surface of upper tibia
Knee and ankleGastrocnemius
Plantaris
Lateral surface of lateral condyle and posterior surface of medial femoral condyle
Posterior surface of lateral femoral condyle
Calcaneum, via Achilles tendon
Calcaneum, via Achilles tendon (acts with gastrocnemius)
Ankle onlySoleusSoleal line and middle one-third of medial border of tibia and posterior surface of upper one-third fibulaCalcaneum, via Achilles tendon
Ankle and tarsusPeroneus longus
Peroneus brevis
Tibialis anterior
Tibialis posterior
Peroneus tertius
Lateral surface of upper two-thirds of lateral fibula
Lateral surface of lower two-thirds of lateral fibula
Lateral surface of upper one-half of tibia and local interosseous membrane
Upper one-half of tibia, fibula and local interosseous membrane
Anterior surface of distal one-quarter of fibula
Base of first metatarsal and lateral side of medial (first) cuneiform
Base of fifth metatarsal
Base of first metatarsal and inferomedial aspect of medial (first) cuneiform
Medial (first) cuneiform, inferior aspects of all tarsal bones (except the talus) and bases of second, third and fourth metatarsals
Dorsal shaft of fifth metatarsal
Tarsus and toesExtensor digitorum brevis
Flexor digitorum brevis
Flexor accessories (quadratus plantae)
Abductor hallucis
Abductor digiti minimi
Superior and anterior surfaces of the calcaneum
Medial process of calcaneal tuberosity
Plantar, medial and lateral aspects of calcaneum
Medial process of calcaneal tuberosity and flexor retinaculum
Calcaneal tuberosity
Dorsum of proximal phalanx of hallux, and extensor expansions of toes 2-4
Plantar, middle phalanges of toes 2-5
Tendon flexor digitorum longus
Medial side of proximal phalanx of hallux
Lateral side of proximal phalanx of fifth toe
Toes onlyDorsal interossei
Plantar interossei
Lumbricals
Flexor hallucis brevis
Adductor hallucis
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Adjacent sides of metatarsals 1-5
Medial sides of metatarsals 3-5
Digital tendon slips of flexor digitorum longus
Medial plantar aspect of the cuboid
Bases of 2-4 metatarsals and transverse plantar ligament of 2-4 metatarsophalangeal joints
Base of fifth metatarsal
Lateral side of toes 2-4 and medial side toe 2
Medial sides of bases of proximal phalanges of toes 3-5
Extensor expansions toes 2-5
Medial and lateral sides of base of proximal phalanx of hallux
Lateral side of base of proximal side of hallux
Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of toe 5
Table 2: Movements occurring about the joints of the lower limb and foot
Movement about jointMuscle causing the movementNerve supply to muscle
Hip flexionIliacus
Psoas major
Rectus femoris
Sartorius
Tensor fasciae lata
Pectineus
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Ventral rami of L1 and L2
Ventral rami of L1 and L2
Femoral
Femoral
Superior gluteal
Femoral
Obturator
Obturator
Hip extensionGluteus maximus
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Biceps femoris, long head
Adductor magnus, ischial part
Inferior gluteal
Tibial part of sciatic nerve
Tibial part of sciatic nerve
Tibial part of sciatic nerve
Tibial part of sciatic nerve
Hip adductionAdductor longus
Adductor brevis
Adductor magnus
Gracilis
Pectineus
Quadratus femoris
Obturator
Obturator
Obturator
Obturator
Femoral
Ventral rami of L4, L5 and S1
Hip abductionGluteus medius
Gluteus minimus
Tensor fasciae lata
Piriformis
Obturator internus, in flexion
Superior gluteal
Superior gluteal
Superior gluteal
Ventral rami of L5 and SI
Ventral rami of L5 and S1
Medial rotation of leg at hipTensor fasciae lata
Gluteus minimus
Anterior fibres of gluteus maximus
Adductors longus, brevis and magnus
Iliopsoas
Superior gluteal
Superior gluteal
Superior gluteal
Superior gluteal
Ventral rami L1 and L2
Lateral rotation of leg at hipSartorius
Gluteus maximus
Obturator internus
Gemelli
Obturator externus
Quadratus femoris
Piriformis, in flexion
Femoral
Inferior gluteal
Ventral rami of L5, S1 and S2
Ventral rami of L5, S1 and S2
Obturator
Ventral rami of L4, L5 and S1 Ventral rami of L5, S1 and S2
Knee flexionSemimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Biceps femoris, long head
Biceps femoris, short head
Gracilis
Sartorius
Popliteus
Gastrocnemius
Sciatic (tibial)
Sciatic (tibial)
Sciatic (tibial)
Common peroneal
Obturator
Femoral
Tibial
Tibial
Knee extensionVastus medialis
Vastus lateralis
Vastus intermedius
Rectus femoris
Gluteus maximus
Tensor fasciae lata
Femoral
Femoral
Femoral
Femoral
Inferior gluteal
Superior gluteal
Lateral rotation of leg = medial rotation of thigh in knee flexionBiceps femoris, long head
Biceps femoris, short head
Gluteus maximus
Tensor fasciae lata
Tibial
Common peroneal
Inferior gluteal
Superior gluteal
Medial rotation of leg with knee flexedPopliteusTibial
Medial rotation of leg with knee extendedSemimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Gracilis
Sartorius
Sciatic (tibial)
Sciatic (tibial)
Obturator
Femoral
Ankle plantarflexionGastrocnemius
Soleus
Plantaris
Tibialis posterior
Flexor hallucis longus
Flexor digitorum longus
Peroneus longus
Peroneus brevis
Tibial
Tibial
Tibial
Tibial
Tibial
Tibial
Superficial peroneal
Superficial peroneal
Ankle dorsiflexionTibialis anterior
Extensor hallucis longus
Extensor digitorum longus
Peroneus tertius
Deep peroneal
Deep peroneal
Deep peroneal
Deep peroneal
Subtalar and midtarsal inversionTibialis anterior
Extensor hallucis longus
Tibialis posterior
Deep peroneal
Deep peroneal
Tibial
Subtalar and midtarsal eversionPeroneus longus
Peroneus brevis
Extensor digitorum longus
Peroneus tertius
Superficial peroneal
Superficial peroneal
Deep peroneal
Deep peroneal
1 Toe plantarflexion (MTPJ; IPJ)Flexor hallucis longus
Flexor hallucis brevis
Tibial
Medial plantar
2-5 Toes plantarflexion (MTPJs; IPJs)Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor accessorius (quadratus plantae)
Flexor digitorum brevis
Lumbricals
Interossei
Tibial
Lateral plantar
Medial plantar
Medial plantar, toe 2; lateral plantar toes 3-5
Lateral plantar
1 Toe dorsiflexionExtensor hallucis longus
Extensor hallucis brevis
Deep peroneal
Deep peroneal
2-5 Toes dorsiflexion
2-4 Toes dorsiflexion
Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor digitorum brevis
Deep peroneal
Deep peroneal
Toe abduction (away from midline of foot = adduction toward midline of body)
Toe 1
Toes 2-4
Toe 5
Abductor hallucis
Dorsal interossei
Abductor digit minimi
Medial plantar
Lateral plantar
Lateral plantar
Toe adduction (toward the midline of foot = abduction away from midline of body)
Toe 1
Toes 2-5
Adductor hallucis*
Plantar interossei
Lateral plantar
Lateral plantar

Note: Primary action of muscles is printed in normal type; muscles that give some contribution to this action are printed in italics .

The nerve supply to the lower limb (lower leg and foot) is derived from the sciatic and femoral nerves. Dysfunction or compromise of either of these nerves causes marked motor, sensory and autonomic effects in the lower leg and foot.

MTPJ, metatarsophalangeal joint; IPJ, interphalangeal joint.

References in periodicals archive ?
Means of the five-point fit ascending slope of the H-reflex recruitment curve were significantly different after applying vibration to the tendon of the soleus muscle [F (19.
GJG normalized the imbalance of slow and fast skeletal muscle in the soleus of SAMP8 mice via expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-co-activator 1[alpha] (PGC-1[alpha])
Those tests with moderate reliability that may prove less useful amongst our population include hip abduction strength, lateral step down, and flexibility of the hamstrings, quadriceps, soleus, and iliotibial band.
At four weeks, the participants ceased wearing the casts and started a 4-week stretching program consisting of standing stretches for the gastrocnemius and soleus.
Our hope is that instead of just treating the symptom, which is at the plantar fascia, we are also treating the tight medial and lateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles and thereby correcting the underlying biomechanical problem.
The damage is to the soleus - the part of the muscle structure used in sprinting - and is likely to keep him out for at least the rest of March.
The $399 portable air conditioner's slim design follows a trend in a slimming down of the products in the category that could be found elsewhere on the show floor with manufacturers such as Soleus and Royal Sovereign.
Add ankle, shin (anterior tibialis), and soleus strengthening exercises to the basic lower extremity muscular fitness exercise program.
today announced the integration of ARM Intelligent Energy Manager software with Intrinsyc Software for Windows Mobile-powered devices and Soleus, the first feature phone software platform based on Windows CE.
This classification leads to 3 fiber types; Slow-twich oxidative (SO) soleus, (Type I); fast-twitch oxidative glyoglytic (FOG) red vastus, (Type II A); and Fast-twich glycolytic (FG) white vastus, (Type II B) (Pette and Staron, 1997; Pette et al.
The superficial posterior compartment contains the soleus, plantaris, and gastrocnemius muscles and the sural nerve.