sodium hydroxide

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a chemical element, atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.990, symbol Na. (See Appendix 6.) Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid, constituting 90 to 95 per cent of all cations in the blood plasma and interstitial fluid; it thus determines the osmolality of the extracellular fluid. The serum sodium concentration is normally about 140 mEq/L. If the sodium level and osmolality fall, osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are stimulated and cause the release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This hormone increases the absorption of water in the collecting ducts of the kidneys so that water is conserved while sodium and other electrolytes are excreted in the urine. If the sodium level and osmolality rise, neurons in the thirst center of the hypothalamus are stimulated. The thirsty person then drinks enough water to restore the osmolality of the extracellular fluid to the normal level.

A decrease in the serum sodium concentration (hyponatremia) can occur in a variety of conditions. It is often associated with deficient fluid volume due to diarrhea or vomiting when water is replaced faster than sodium. It can also occur in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, in the late stages of congestive heart failure or cirrhosis of the liver, in acute or chronic renal failure, and in diuretic therapy. An increase in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia) occurs when insensible water loss is not replaced by drinking, as in a comatose patient with diabetes insipidus.
sodium acetate a source of sodium ions for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, as well as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
sodium ascorbate an antiscorbutic vitamin and nutritional supplement for parenteral administration. It is also used as an aid to deferoxamine therapy in the treatment of chronic iron toxicity.
sodium benzoate an antifungal agent also used in a test of liver function.
sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3, a white powder commonly found in households. It has a wide variety of uses in chemistry, in pharmaceuticals, and in consumer products. It is sometimes taken in water as a remedy for acid indigestion but should not be used regularly since when taken in excess it tends to cause alkalosis. It can be mixed with water and applied as a paste for relief of pain in treatment of minor burns and insect bites and stings. A cupful in the bath water may help relieve itching caused by an allergic reaction. Called also baking soda and bicarbonate of soda.
sodium biphosphate monobasic sodium phosphate.
sodium carbonate a compound now used primarily as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals; it has been used as a lotion or bath in the treatment of scaly skin, and as a detergent.
sodium chloride common table salt, a necessary constituent of the body and therefore of the diet, involved in maintaining osmotic tension of blood and tissues; uses include replenishment of electrolytes in the body, irrigation of wounds and body cavities, enema, inhaled mucolytic, topical osmotic ophthalmic agent, and preparation of pharmaceuticals. Called also salt.
sodium citrate a sodium salt of citric acid, used as an anticoagulant for blood or plasma that is to be fractionated or for blood that is to be stored. It is also administered orally as a urinary alkalizer.
dibasic sodium phosphate a salt of phosphoric acid; used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
sodium ferric gluconate a hematinic used especially in treatment of hemodialysis patients with iron deficiency anemia who are also receiving erythropoietin therapy. Administered by intravenous injection.
sodium fluoride a dental caries preventative used in fluoridation of drinking water or applied topically to teeth. Topical preparations include gels (sodium fluoride and phosphoric acid gel, also called APF gel) and solutions (sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate topical solution, also called APF solution).
sodium glutamate monosodium glutamate.
sodium hydroxide NaOH, a strongly alkaline and caustic compound; used as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals.
sodium hypochlorite a compound having germicidal, deodorizing, and bleaching properties; used in solution to disinfect utensils, and in diluted form (Dakin's solution) as a local antibacterial.
sodium iodide a compound used as a source of iodine.
sodium lactate a compound used in solution to replenish body fluids and electrolytes.
monobasic sodium phosphate
1. a monosodium salt of phosphoric acid; used in buffer solutions, as a urinary acidifier, as a laxative, and as a source of phosphorus in hypophosphatemia, often in combination with potassium phosphate.
2. a monosodium salt of phosphoric acid; used in buffer solutions. Used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
sodium monofluorophosphate a dental caries preventative applied topically to the teeth.
sodium nitrite an antidote for cyanide poisoning; also used as a preservative in cured meats and other foods.
sodium nitroprusside an antihypertensive agent used in the treatment of acute congestive heart failure and of hypertensive crisis and to produce controlled hypotension during surgery; also used as a reagent.
sodium phenylbutyrate an agent used as adjunctive treatment to control the hyperammonemia of pediatric urea cycle enzyme disorders.
sodium phosphate any of various compounds of sodium and phosphoric acid; usually specifically dibasic sodium phosphate.
sodium polystyrene sulfonate an ion-exchange resin used for removal of potassium ions in hyperkalemia, administered orally or rectally.
sodium propionate a salt used as an antifungal preservative in foods and pharmaceuticals and as a topical antifungal agent.
sodium salicylate see salicylate.
sodium sulfate a cathartic and laxative.
sodium thiosulfate a compound used intravenously as an antidote for cyanide poisoning, in foot baths for prophylaxis of ringworm, and as a topical antifungal agent for tinea versicolor. Also used in measuring the volume of extracellular body fluid and the renal glomerular filtration rate.

so·di·um hy·drox·ide

used externally as a caustic.
Synonym(s): caustic soda
References in periodicals archive ?
How has the Oman sodium hydroxide market performed so far and how will it perform in the coming years?
Caustic skin burn caused by sodium hydroxide. BMJ Case Rep 2012; 11: 2012.
Fish scales were dissolved on the basis of their hydrolysis by the sodium hydroxide. The resulting material is named as the crude hydrolyzate.
Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 are the nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms for raw aluminium dross and treated with 1% concentration of sodium hydroxide, stirring time of 30 minutes, and leaching temperatures of 25[degrees]C, 40[degrees]C, and 55[degrees]C, respectively.
After the experimental addition of preservatives and neutralizers to milk, the minimum final concentrations detected in milk, by the legislation-described specific tests (BRASIL, 2006), were 0.005% for formaldehyde, 0.003% for hydrogen peroxide, 0.013% for sodium hypochlorite, and 0.1% for sodium hydroxide. At the concentrations evaluated in this study, chlorine and chlorinated alkaline detergent additives were not detected in any of the tests applied.
The first interesting results obtained in late 1970s withion exchange membrane separators which could operate in a life time about one year with sodium hydroxide concentration of 15-28 % in current density 2 KA/[m.sup.2] with Faraday efficiency of 85%.
Sodium hydroxide (36oBe), acetic acid, urea, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate were of Analar grade.
The platinum blade evidently removed from the flame even more heat than the sodium hydroxide, but it, however, radiated even more.
Chitin measurement: The highest chitin content was for culture containing 120 g/ kg DM sodium hydroxide treated rice straw (P <0.05).
Miss Fogg said sodium hydroxide forms a strong alkaline solution when mixed with water, which can be lethal to fish and other aquatic life, and that the River Derwent needed to be restocked with fish afterwards as the pollution had caused significant damage to river life.
Commercial grade sodium hydroxide in pallets form (97% -100% purity) and sodium silicate solution ([Na.sub.2]O=18.2%, Si[O.sub.2]=36.7%, Water = 45.1%) were used as the alkali activators.
On the other hand, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is poured into the filtrate (NaCl, N[a.sub.2]S[O.sub.4], MgCl2, and MgS[O.sub.4]) of 6% saline sprinkling water without Ca in order to liberate magnesium; magnesium hydroxide [Mg[(OH[).sub.2]] is precipitated and separated from the saline solution.