sodium citrate


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sodium

 [so´de-um]
a chemical element, atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.990, symbol Na. (See Appendix 6.) Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid, constituting 90 to 95 per cent of all cations in the blood plasma and interstitial fluid; it thus determines the osmolality of the extracellular fluid. The serum sodium concentration is normally about 140 mEq/L. If the sodium level and osmolality fall, osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are stimulated and cause the release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This hormone increases the absorption of water in the collecting ducts of the kidneys so that water is conserved while sodium and other electrolytes are excreted in the urine. If the sodium level and osmolality rise, neurons in the thirst center of the hypothalamus are stimulated. The thirsty person then drinks enough water to restore the osmolality of the extracellular fluid to the normal level.



A decrease in the serum sodium concentration (hyponatremia) can occur in a variety of conditions. It is often associated with deficient fluid volume due to diarrhea or vomiting when water is replaced faster than sodium. It can also occur in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, in the late stages of congestive heart failure or cirrhosis of the liver, in acute or chronic renal failure, and in diuretic therapy. An increase in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia) occurs when insensible water loss is not replaced by drinking, as in a comatose patient with diabetes insipidus.
sodium acetate a source of sodium ions for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, as well as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
sodium ascorbate an antiscorbutic vitamin and nutritional supplement for parenteral administration. It is also used as an aid to deferoxamine therapy in the treatment of chronic iron toxicity.
sodium benzoate an antifungal agent also used in a test of liver function.
sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3, a white powder commonly found in households. It has a wide variety of uses in chemistry, in pharmaceuticals, and in consumer products. It is sometimes taken in water as a remedy for acid indigestion but should not be used regularly since when taken in excess it tends to cause alkalosis. It can be mixed with water and applied as a paste for relief of pain in treatment of minor burns and insect bites and stings. A cupful in the bath water may help relieve itching caused by an allergic reaction. Called also baking soda and bicarbonate of soda.
sodium biphosphate monobasic sodium phosphate.
sodium carbonate a compound now used primarily as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals; it has been used as a lotion or bath in the treatment of scaly skin, and as a detergent.
sodium chloride common table salt, a necessary constituent of the body and therefore of the diet, involved in maintaining osmotic tension of blood and tissues; uses include replenishment of electrolytes in the body, irrigation of wounds and body cavities, enema, inhaled mucolytic, topical osmotic ophthalmic agent, and preparation of pharmaceuticals. Called also salt.
sodium citrate a sodium salt of citric acid, used as an anticoagulant for blood or plasma that is to be fractionated or for blood that is to be stored. It is also administered orally as a urinary alkalizer.
dibasic sodium phosphate a salt of phosphoric acid; used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
sodium ferric gluconate a hematinic used especially in treatment of hemodialysis patients with iron deficiency anemia who are also receiving erythropoietin therapy. Administered by intravenous injection.
sodium fluoride a dental caries preventative used in fluoridation of drinking water or applied topically to teeth. Topical preparations include gels (sodium fluoride and phosphoric acid gel, also called APF gel) and solutions (sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate topical solution, also called APF solution).
sodium glutamate monosodium glutamate.
sodium hydroxide NaOH, a strongly alkaline and caustic compound; used as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals.
sodium hypochlorite a compound having germicidal, deodorizing, and bleaching properties; used in solution to disinfect utensils, and in diluted form (Dakin's solution) as a local antibacterial.
sodium iodide a compound used as a source of iodine.
sodium lactate a compound used in solution to replenish body fluids and electrolytes.
monobasic sodium phosphate
1. a monosodium salt of phosphoric acid; used in buffer solutions, as a urinary acidifier, as a laxative, and as a source of phosphorus in hypophosphatemia, often in combination with potassium phosphate.
2. a monosodium salt of phosphoric acid; used in buffer solutions. Used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
sodium monofluorophosphate a dental caries preventative applied topically to the teeth.
sodium nitrite an antidote for cyanide poisoning; also used as a preservative in cured meats and other foods.
sodium nitroprusside an antihypertensive agent used in the treatment of acute congestive heart failure and of hypertensive crisis and to produce controlled hypotension during surgery; also used as a reagent.
sodium phenylbutyrate an agent used as adjunctive treatment to control the hyperammonemia of pediatric urea cycle enzyme disorders.
sodium phosphate any of various compounds of sodium and phosphoric acid; usually specifically dibasic sodium phosphate.
sodium polystyrene sulfonate an ion-exchange resin used for removal of potassium ions in hyperkalemia, administered orally or rectally.
sodium propionate a salt used as an antifungal preservative in foods and pharmaceuticals and as a topical antifungal agent.
sodium salicylate see salicylate.
sodium sulfate a cathartic and laxative.
sodium thiosulfate a compound used intravenously as an antidote for cyanide poisoning, in foot baths for prophylaxis of ringworm, and as a topical antifungal agent for tinea versicolor. Also used in measuring the volume of extracellular body fluid and the renal glomerular filtration rate.

so·di·um cit·rate

used as diuretic, antilithic, systemic and urinary alkalizer, expectorant, and anticoagulant (in vitro).
Synonym(s): sodium acid citrate

sodium citrate

n.
A white crystalline or granular compound, Na3C6H5O7, used in photography and in medicine especially as an anticoagulant of blood stored for transfusion.

so·di·um cit·rate

(sōdē-ŭm sitrāt)
Compound used as diuretic, antilithic, systemic and urinary alkalizer, expectorant, and anticoagulant (in vitro).
References in periodicals archive ?
Influence of two different buffered sodium citrate concentrations on coagulation testing.
The pH was the lowest for the sodium citrate diet, whereas the other diets had a pH similar to the control diet (Table 1).
Global sodium citrate dihydrate market is segmented into types, forms, functions, applications, manufacturing methods, and region.
Death End Points Studies: were performed by transferring cells after exposure to the inhibitors (sodium bicarbonate, pyruvic acid, sodium citrate, FDP, Zn acetate and oxalic acid to new complete media and observation for growth regeneration for a 6 week period.
This could be ascribed to the high viscosity of MC which represented an impediment to the rate of reducing silver ion by sodium citrate and indicated a tendency towards aggregation.
Add the weights of the cheese and liquid, and multiply the total by 0.028 to get the amount of sodium citrate to use.
* Sodium citrate was purchased from "Gomhouria" Company for Chemicals, Cairo, Egypt.
Since sodium citrate 4% is typically supplied in intravenous solution bags, a process was developed with the pharmacy to provide catheter locks for the dialysis units.
The general conclusion of the reviewers is that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate appears to enhance performance in a single bout of maximal intensity exercise of approximately 1-7 min duration.
There was no sodium citrate in the cupboard and it appeared that acetic acid had been used to restock the cupboard, rather than the correct drug.
In patients with hematocrit levels exceeding 55%, the volume of anticoagulant (sodium citrate) should be corrected when testing for coagulants such as fibrinogen.
Sodium citrate would create another hurdle to block the growth of C.