sodium benzoate


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sodium

 [so´de-um]
a chemical element, atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.990, symbol Na. (See Appendix 6.) Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid, constituting 90 to 95 per cent of all cations in the blood plasma and interstitial fluid; it thus determines the osmolality of the extracellular fluid. The serum sodium concentration is normally about 140 mEq/L. If the sodium level and osmolality fall, osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are stimulated and cause the release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This hormone increases the absorption of water in the collecting ducts of the kidneys so that water is conserved while sodium and other electrolytes are excreted in the urine. If the sodium level and osmolality rise, neurons in the thirst center of the hypothalamus are stimulated. The thirsty person then drinks enough water to restore the osmolality of the extracellular fluid to the normal level.



A decrease in the serum sodium concentration (hyponatremia) can occur in a variety of conditions. It is often associated with deficient fluid volume due to diarrhea or vomiting when water is replaced faster than sodium. It can also occur in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, in the late stages of congestive heart failure or cirrhosis of the liver, in acute or chronic renal failure, and in diuretic therapy. An increase in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia) occurs when insensible water loss is not replaced by drinking, as in a comatose patient with diabetes insipidus.
sodium acetate a source of sodium ions for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, as well as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
sodium ascorbate an antiscorbutic vitamin and nutritional supplement for parenteral administration. It is also used as an aid to deferoxamine therapy in the treatment of chronic iron toxicity.
sodium benzoate an antifungal agent also used in a test of liver function.
sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3, a white powder commonly found in households. It has a wide variety of uses in chemistry, in pharmaceuticals, and in consumer products. It is sometimes taken in water as a remedy for acid indigestion but should not be used regularly since when taken in excess it tends to cause alkalosis. It can be mixed with water and applied as a paste for relief of pain in treatment of minor burns and insect bites and stings. A cupful in the bath water may help relieve itching caused by an allergic reaction. Called also baking soda and bicarbonate of soda.
sodium biphosphate monobasic sodium phosphate.
sodium carbonate a compound now used primarily as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals; it has been used as a lotion or bath in the treatment of scaly skin, and as a detergent.
sodium chloride common table salt, a necessary constituent of the body and therefore of the diet, involved in maintaining osmotic tension of blood and tissues; uses include replenishment of electrolytes in the body, irrigation of wounds and body cavities, enema, inhaled mucolytic, topical osmotic ophthalmic agent, and preparation of pharmaceuticals. Called also salt.
sodium citrate a sodium salt of citric acid, used as an anticoagulant for blood or plasma that is to be fractionated or for blood that is to be stored. It is also administered orally as a urinary alkalizer.
dibasic sodium phosphate a salt of phosphoric acid; used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
sodium ferric gluconate a hematinic used especially in treatment of hemodialysis patients with iron deficiency anemia who are also receiving erythropoietin therapy. Administered by intravenous injection.
sodium fluoride a dental caries preventative used in fluoridation of drinking water or applied topically to teeth. Topical preparations include gels (sodium fluoride and phosphoric acid gel, also called APF gel) and solutions (sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate topical solution, also called APF solution).
sodium glutamate monosodium glutamate.
sodium hydroxide NaOH, a strongly alkaline and caustic compound; used as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals.
sodium hypochlorite a compound having germicidal, deodorizing, and bleaching properties; used in solution to disinfect utensils, and in diluted form (Dakin's solution) as a local antibacterial.
sodium iodide a compound used as a source of iodine.
sodium lactate a compound used in solution to replenish body fluids and electrolytes.
monobasic sodium phosphate
1. a monosodium salt of phosphoric acid; used in buffer solutions, as a urinary acidifier, as a laxative, and as a source of phosphorus in hypophosphatemia, often in combination with potassium phosphate.
2. a monosodium salt of phosphoric acid; used in buffer solutions. Used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
sodium monofluorophosphate a dental caries preventative applied topically to the teeth.
sodium nitrite an antidote for cyanide poisoning; also used as a preservative in cured meats and other foods.
sodium nitroprusside an antihypertensive agent used in the treatment of acute congestive heart failure and of hypertensive crisis and to produce controlled hypotension during surgery; also used as a reagent.
sodium phenylbutyrate an agent used as adjunctive treatment to control the hyperammonemia of pediatric urea cycle enzyme disorders.
sodium phosphate any of various compounds of sodium and phosphoric acid; usually specifically dibasic sodium phosphate.
sodium polystyrene sulfonate an ion-exchange resin used for removal of potassium ions in hyperkalemia, administered orally or rectally.
sodium propionate a salt used as an antifungal preservative in foods and pharmaceuticals and as a topical antifungal agent.
sodium salicylate see salicylate.
sodium sulfate a cathartic and laxative.
sodium thiosulfate a compound used intravenously as an antidote for cyanide poisoning, in foot baths for prophylaxis of ringworm, and as a topical antifungal agent for tinea versicolor. Also used in measuring the volume of extracellular body fluid and the renal glomerular filtration rate.

so·di·um ben·zo·ate

used in chronic and acute rheumatism, as a liver function test, and as a preservative.

sodium benzoate

n.
The sodium salt of benzoic acid, NaC7H5O2, used as a food preservative, an antiseptic, and an intermediate in dye manufacture and in the production of pharmaceuticals. Also called benzoate of soda.

so·di·um ben·zo·ate

(sōdē-ŭm benzō-āt)
Used in chronic and acute rheumatism, in a liver function test, and as a preservative.
References in periodicals archive ?
Treatment of OFSP puree with potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate at different concentrations together with 1 % citric acid had a slightly greater effect on S.
Pupae from larvae fed with sodium benzoate and 2-phenylphenol were heavier than those fed with formaldehyde (Table 3), which could be explained by a possible phagostimulant action of these anti-contaminants, which would provide a higher dietary intake by the larvae in the feeding process and as a consequence an increase in the pupae weight, or even, these products could, due to their specific action, have protected the diet from the qualitative degradation, which may have favored the ingestion, conversion and use of the food by the insect, leading to the production of better quality insects.
Demir, "Determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, nitrate and nitrite in some commercial dairy products," Gida, vol.
Foliar application of salicylic acid recorded the highest crude protein yield (4.0 q ha-1) followed by 2% KNO3 (3.74 q ha-1) and were significantly better than sodium benzoate (100 and150 g mL-1) 0.5% CaCl2 and 1% KNO3.Foliar applications of sodium benzoate exerted leasteffect on pod and grain yield in our study but both the traits were found significantly better than control.
The standard stock solution of lornoxicam was prepared by dissolving 50 mg of drug in 50 mL of 2 M sodium benzoate. From this stock solution 5 mL was diluted to 50 mL with distilled water to get a concentration of 100 [micro]g/mL and scanned in the entire UV range of 400-200 nm to determine the [lambda] max of the drug.
Six (60%) patients received L-carnitine and one (10%) patient received sodium benzoate for 2 weeks Blood ammonia levels returned to normal value in 5 (50%) patients and reduced to more than half of the baseline in two (20%).
Shelf life of injera containing 0.1 % benzoic acid and sodium benzoate were the better preservatives of all tested chemical agents, which prolonged the shelf life of injera up to 12 days.
(10) Pharmacological management of ammonia removal includes sodium phenylacetate, sodium benzoate, and sodium phenylbutyrate, which act in combination with glutamine or glycine and convert ammonia to either phenylacetylglutamine or hippurate that are easily excreted by kidneys.
The combination of sodium benzoate and lactic acid was just as effective as the sodium benzoate-lactic acid-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid combination against both pathogens, and was more effective than the other coating treatments.
The purpose of this investigation was to reduce the zinc phosphate content, in alkyd paints, by means of the incorporation of low quantities of selected soluble corrosion inhibitors (e.g., sodium phosphate, sodium polyphosphate, and sodium benzoate).
This preservative is in nearly everything that sets on the shelves of stores, or one of its sister preservatives, sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate.
DSP produces benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and sodium benzoate. DSM IP is the owner of certain intellectual property rights.