57) In addition, however, sociobiologists
entertain the possibility that altruistic kindness can redound on oneself, or that, even without individual hope of reward or return, multiplication of altruistic activities can shape a group over time for its evolutionary betterment.
Lowering our sights to biology and its implications for ethics, critics of Social Darwinism have charged that the distinction between past and future selves gets lost when natural historians and sociobiologists
reduce human nature to its past and its genetic leash.
Anti-rationalism has been criticised by, among others, that arch-rationalist Richard Dawkins who in turn, though, is arguing for the supremacy of his own discipline as do other sociobiologists
Contrary to the Darwinian sociobiologists
who believe genes are the basic, practically exclusive explanation for human behavior, Dagg believes from her studies that "human beings act as they do primarily because of their sex and personality.
will, of course, be more forgiving, pointing out that these men are simply doing their job in attempting to perpetuate the species by retrieving information to fine-tune their future sexual performance.
suggest that men regard beauty as a symbol of health, which translates into producing healthy offspring.
Classic themes were readily seen to correlate with biosocial tenets, but from the very start participants expressed concern that sociobiologists
avoid the kinds of biased and sloppy research methods generally attributed to literary critics and their various schools.
She chides sociobiologists
who use loaded phrases like "the selfish gene" and "sneaker" males, but unabashedly introduces the term "genial gene," and refers to separated breeding pairs as "divorcing" and "deadbeat" animals.
might recognize this, at least in the area of religious ritual, and indeed would investigate the evolution of Islam in precisely these terms, we may strongly doubt that this is Iqbal's intention.
To counter the difficulties sociobiologists
face reconciling the "biological and metaphorical interpretations" (p.
indignantly responded by denying the links between genetic determinism, eugenics, racism and National Socialism.
The sheer variety of ways to attack our humanity, be that from the pens of behaviorists, sociobiologists
, political economists, or animal rights advocates, constitutes but more evidence, albeit not the prettiest, of just how extraordinary we human beings are.