To assess social exclusion
in rural Pakistan, this study uses the Pakistan Rural Household Survey (2013) conducted by Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt.) Ltd.
According to the EU's definition, "The at risk of poverty rate or social exclusion
is the share of people whose total household income (after social transfers, tax and other deductions), available for spending or saving, is below the at risk of poverty threshold, which is set at 60 per cent of the national median equivalised disposable income after social transfers.
For the study, Covert and Stefanone created scenarios designed to mirror typical interactions on Facebook, and 194 individuals participated in an experiment ensuring exposure to social exclusion
. The researchers presented one group with a scenario involving two good friends, where one of those friends had shared information that excluded the participant.
Suicidal ideation was significantly and positively related to social exclusion
(p<0.001), psychological distress (p<0.001), age (p<0.001)) and severity of hearing loss (p<0.05), whereas a significant negative relationship of suicidal ideation (p<0.05) was observed with psychological well-being.
At the other end of the list, the lowest share of children at risk of poverty or social exclusion
is Denmark (13.8%), Finland (14.7%) and Slovenia (14.9%).
However, this study has failed to explore how workers' access to health and sanitation are influenced by social exclusion
is related to people's need for a sense of belonging; when that need cannot be satisfied, people feel excluded (Lee & Shrum, 2012).
To my mind, the fundamental difference between the two definitions is that the UK Social Exclusion
Unit definition does not specify or allude to the causes or agents of exclusion.
Prof Shucksmith's research has come out of the TiPSE (Territorial Indicators of Poverty and Social Exclusion
in Europe) project, which has involved universities in Sweden, Germany, Hungary, Greece and the UK.
is a broader concept of disadvantage than income poverty and recognises that non-participation can develop in various ways such as discrimination, cultural identification, geographical location or transport accessibility (Burchardt et al., 2002).
In 2012, 124.5 million people, or 24.8% of the population, in the EU were at risk of poverty or social exclusion
, compared with 24.3% in 2011 and 23.7% in 2008, according to Eurostat data, released on 5 December.
Birch, who has worked as a practitioner developing learning in community and school settings in the UK, shows practitioners, policy makers, researchers, students, and regeneration managers and agencies how social and educational inequalities in the UK impact the lives and social exclusion
of adults who left school with few or no qualifications.