In turn, findings also show no relation between IFRS and the level of discretionary accruals (Joia & Nakao, 2014) and an increase in smoothing practices after the IFRS adoption (Klann & Beuren, 2015).
income smoothing, being also another time-series property, inverse to volatility.
The smoothing technique incorporated along with EKF provides a better estimate than filtering.
Figure 2 shows the actual motor speed and Kalman Filter and smoothing filter estimated speed and their zoomed response.
Exponential smoothing methods involve updating the estimates by taking account of the last change and spikes in the time series data.
[alpha]: Smoothing coefficient, (0<[alpha]<1)
Therefore, it is one of the important factors on the smoothing process.
Laplacian smoothing is a well-known algorithm to smooth a polygonal mesh.
(2013) provide evidence of conflicting positions with regards to smoothing
: on one hand, it is seen as a desirable feature of stability; on the other hand, it is interpreted as an opportunistic and misleading attitude.
By the Formula (1) and a moving average smoothing
Equation (2) can be obtained in the form of recursive:
Section 2 briefly reviews the literature related to tax smoothing
Operational definitions of income smoothing
and earnings quality: