Studies concerning the American market indicate differences in smoothing levels, related to company economic sector, when considered in conjunction with company size, as in Albrecht and Richardson (1990); larger companies tend to smooth their results more, according to Michelson, Jordan-Wagner, and Wootton (1995, 2000).
Torres, Bruni, Castro, and Martinez (2010) present evidence of the mitigation of smoothing by the presence of better corporate governance, indicating that firms with more concentrated capital can practice smoothing in order to meet the interests of majority and controlling shareholders, altering minority shareholders' perceptions of risk.
After Barro's (1979) seminal paper, the tax smoothing hypothesis was further generalized by Lucas and Stokey (1983, pp.
There are a large number of empirical studies that examine the tax smoothing hypothesis.
has been defined as a conscious and deliberate action to reduce volatility of reported earnings during successive periods at a level of earnings which is considered the company's normal level.
8220;The industry has become saturated with hair smoothing
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After this introduction, the second section presents a brief description of income smoothing
and a review of the papers on this issue.
provided a clearer picture of the areas of increased risk on a smaller scale than by town.
Utilizing the exponential smoothing
model program to forecast quarterly, monthly and annual estimates is a simple process.
Further, the study shows that the combined effects of smoothing
and ORR can improve the performance of simple shop floor dispatching rules like first come-first served to the point where they are competitive with more sophisticated, due date oriented rules.
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