mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GSH-Px) and lipid peroxidative stress in liver of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to hyperoxic water during smoltification
At present, tests for determining whether salmon have completed the physiological changes required to migrate safely a process called smoltification
can take 48 hours or more and involve sending samples elsewhere in the UK or to Norway.
Biochemical and physiological studies demonstrated that SL might be involved in a variety of physiological actions including reproduction [3-5] smoltification
 acid-base balance  background adaptation [8,9] phosphate transport  melanosome aggregation [11,12] and immune response .
During the smoltification
period in salmonids, the capacity of the intestine to absorb saline fluid steadily increases until the peak of this transition (Nielsen et al.
Changes in plasma thyroxine during smoltification
of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.
A biochemical study of mucus lysozyme, proteins and plasma thyroxine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during smoltification
Alterationsin lipid metabolism accompanying smoltification
and seawater adaptation of salmonid fish.
CDNA cloning and expression analysis of thyroid hormone receptor in the coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch during smoltification
Effects de la diminution de la photoperiode sur la smoltification
precoce obtenue en environnement controle shez le saumon atlantique (Salmo salar).
The physiological process of smoltification
is complex and one explanation for the lack of downstream movement by emancipated Coho Salmon juveniles is that they exceeded a threshold in size, age, or physiological status that resulted from being landlocked in Rifle Lake.
The eggs hatch during April-May and sea trout generally remain 2 years in fresh water before smoltification
and migration to the sea.
status and good physiological condition were shown to be important for the success of Atlantic salmon transfer to the sea (Virtanen et al.