In a study of smokeless powder
decomposition in soil, Trensey (2013) found that ammonium concentrations ranged from 6.4 to 16.3 mg/kg.
The contribution of trace elements from smokeless powder
to post-firing residues, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1998) 43:90-96.
Firearms designed around smokeless powders
use strong, heat-treated steels to deal with the increased pressures.
To top off all of this, the author describes his process for loading brass cases with a blackpowder substitute, for which there is no published data for the cartridge in question, then goes on to describe loading cartridges with a commercial smokeless powder
and measuring it out as "about a .357 shell's worth." The Accurate 2520 powder used in this loading "method" is a very fast burning powder producing very high pressures that do exceed the tolerance range of the receiver of the gun itself, before adding to it the way in which it was manufactured.
"Our successful dealers are able to sell our muzzleloaders because of the benefits to the shooter: 3,000 foot-pounds of knockdown energy with accuracy capability of 1.5-inch groups at 100 yards along with smokeless powder
Accuracy with the heel-based bullets over smokeless powder
was poor because a crimp could not be applied.
Webleys have been around a long time, spanning the time from black powder to smokeless powder
. They are robust revolvers, however, care must be taken--especially with the early ones as the steel is not even close to what is in use today.
Caption: This Colt SAA .38-40 (above) lost its topstrap due to a double charge of smokeless powder
. This Swedish Model 1896 Mauser (below) blew most likely due to a ruptured case head.
The 10.4x38 (.41 Swiss) Vetterli is a fascinating firearm of the late 19th century--an early bolt action with a cam actuated loading mechanism that lifts cartridges fed from a tube magazine and a rimfire cartridge that spanned the evolution from black to smokeless powder
. It is a not uncommon rifle and even nice specimens are not expensive.
Savage was fortunate in that his company came onto the scene when smokeless powder
cartridges were already in use, so he didn't have to reengineer blackpowder designs to handle higher pressures.
Despite their avowed neutrality, the Danes considered their rapacious German neighbors a constant threat, and so in the late 1880s Denmark, like most European nations, began upgrading their armed forces with the new breed of smallbore, smokeless powder
Using smokeless powder
it costs about 15 cents per shot.