Infections linked to causing small vessel vasculitis
include streptococcal and staphylococcal infections, tuberculosis, leprosy, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and infective endocarditis.
Endothelial dysfunction, increased cardiovascular events (CVE), and accelerated atherosclerosis have been described in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases such as large and small vessel vasculitis
and collagen vascular disease (1, 2).
In cases of small vessel vasculitis
the magnetic resonance angiography findings are usually normal22.
Imai et al., "Infective endocarditis by Bartonella quintana masquerading as antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated small vessel vasculitis
," Cardiology, vol.
ANCA is regarded as a marker of small vessel vasculitis
. However, some patients who test positive for ANCA exhibit infections (such as tuberculosis), inflammatory bowel diseases, other autoimmune disorders, and malignancies [6-10].
ANCA is strongly associated with three types of small vessel vasculitis
: microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and eosinophil granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) .
Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common form of systemic small vessel vasculitis
involving the skin, joints, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract in childhood.
Introduction: IgA vasculitis is a systemic small vessel vasculitis
accompanied by gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and renal involvement.
(10) The previous consensus nomenclature system (11) was developed prior to widespread ANCA serologic testing and did not differentiate sufficiently the different forms of small vessel vasculitis
. One of the main areas of revision included the description of 2 pathophysiologically different groups of small vessel vasculitis
including immune complex vasculitis and AAV (Table 1).
The renal manifestations are typically a rapidly progressive crescentic necrotizing glomerulonephritis that is caused by small vessel vasculitis
within glomeruli .
E, Small vessel vasculitis
with neutrophilic inflammation and leukocytoclasia (H&E, magnification 100x).